The Simple Random Sample (SRS) below consists of traditions that are randomly selected from the Outline of Archaeological Traditions (OAT) compiled by Peter N. Peregrine with the help of a Board of Advisors. The OAT attempted to catalogue all known prehistoric archaeological traditions.
|REGION||SUBREGION||TRADITION NAME||OWC||SUBSISTENCE TYPE||BEGIN |
|Asia||South Asia||Ganges Neolithic||AQ50||other subsistence combinations||4000||2500|
|Europe||General Europe||Bell Beaker||E050||intensive agriculturalists||4500||3800|
|Middle East||Middle East||Iranian Bronze Age||MA50||agro-pastoralists||5000||3500|
|North America||Arctic and Subarctic||Norton||NA50||hunter-gatherers||3000||1000|
|North America||Arctic and Subarctic||Proto-Athapaskans||ND50||hunter-gatherers||2000||150|
|Oceania||Polynesia||Hawaiian||OV50||horticulture to intensive agriculture||800||200|
|South America||Central Andes||Andean Regional Development||S050||agro-pastoralists||2200||1300|
|South America||Northwestern South America||Manteño||SD50||horticulturalists||1500||500|
|South America||Central Andes||Aymara Kingdoms||SF50||agro-pastoralists||900||530|
|Europe||General Europe||Impressed Ware||E051||primarily hunter-gatherers||6800||6000|
|Africa||Northern Africa||Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene Maghreb||M050||hunter-gatherers||20000||7500|
|Africa||Northern Africa||Khartoum Neolithic||MS50||other subsistence combinations||5700||3550|
|North America||General North America||Eastern Arctic Small Tool||N050||hunter-gatherers||4000||2700|
|North America||Northwest Coast and California||Late Southern California||NS50||hunter-gatherers||3000||150|
|Middle America and the Caribbean||Northern Mexico||Huatabampo||NU75||primarily hunter-gatherers||1800||500|
|Middle America and the Caribbean||Maya Area||Classic Maya||NY53||intensive agriculturalists||2100||1100|
|Oceania||Melanesia||New Guinea Neolithic||OJ50||horticulturalists||10000||100|
|Middle America and the Caribbean||Caribbean||Late Caribbean||S051||intensive agriculturalists||1000||500|
|Asia||Central Asia||Eastern Central Asia Neolithic and Bronze Age||AJ50||agro-pastoralists||6000||1500|
|North America||Eastern Woodlands||Eastern Middle Archaic||NN50||hunter-gatherers||8000||6000|
|North America||Plains and Plateau||Cascade||NR50||hunter-gatherers||8000||5000|
|Middle America and the Caribbean||Central Mexico||West Mexico Postclassic||NU76||intensive agriculturalists||1100||480|
|South America||Northwestern South America||Early Northwest South American Littoral||S060||primarily hunter-gatherers||9000||5500|
|Asia||South Asia||Central Indian Neolithic||AQ63||other subsistence combinations||5000||3100|
|Europe||Southeastern Europe||Southeastern Europe Late Chalcolithic||E075||agro-pastoralists||5500||4500|
|Europe||Scandinavia||Scandinavian Iron Age||E087||other subsistence combinations||2500||1500|
|Africa||Western Africa||West African Iron Age||FA75||other subsistence combinations||2500||1200|
|North America||Arctic and Subarctic||Late Tundra||NA45||hunter-gatherers||8000||6000|
|North America||Eastern Woodlands||Initial Shield Woodland||NC54||hunter-gatherers||3000||600|
|Asia||Central Asia||Early Nomad||RL60||pastoralists||2800||2300|
|Middle East||Middle East||Early Dynastic Mesopotamia||MH64||agro-pastoralists||4900||4334|
|Asia||East Asia||Yayoi||AB80||intensive agriculturalists||2500||1500|
|Asia||South Asia||Indus Neolithic||AQ40||hunter-gatherers to food producers||7000||5000|
|Africa||Northern Africa||Middle Paleolithic Egypt||MR45||hunter-gatherers||230000||45000|
|North America||Eastern Woodlands||Hopewell||NP55||horticulturalists||2100||1700|
|Asia||East Asia||Southeast China Early Neolithic||AF70||primarily hunter-gatherers||9000||5500|
|Middle East||Middle East||Halafian||M086||agro-pastoralists||7500||7000|
|Middle America and the Caribbean||Central Mexico||Olmec||NU95||other subsistence combinations||3400||2100|
|Middle East||Middle East||Akkadian||MH66||agro-pastoralists||4334||4112|
|North America||Arctic and Subarctic||Paleo-Arctic||ND60||hunter-gatherers||11000||6000|
|North America||Southwest and Basin||Hohokam||NT76||intensive agriculturalists||2000||500|
|South America||Central Andes||Chimu||SE75||intensive agriculturalists||1100||480|
Topics and Cultures in eHRAF: This printable PDF document is an overview of all the topics on cultural and social life, and all cultures, past and present, currently covered in HRAF’s cross-cultural online databases. It serves as handy reference for librarians, educators, and researchers.
Excel format: A comprehensive list of the 46 SRS tradition names currently included in the eHRAF Archaeology database. The excel format also includes sequence and installment numbers, OWC codes, region coverage (including subregions), date coverage (beginning and ending dates for the cultural materials), and subsistence type. This list in excel format is versatile because you can sort the spreadsheet to your needs and add or delete any columns you like. The sequence numbers for each culture name make the excel table useful for generating a subset of the simple random sample from eHRAF. Visit the Cross-Cultural Research section to learn more about random sampling.
Access to the archaeological traditions in the eHRAF Archaeology database requires membership (or temporary password). Contact email@example.com for access to eHRAF Archaeology.
Hunter-gatherers — also called foragers; depend almost entirely (75% or more) on hunting, gathering, and fishing for subsistence
Hunter-gatherers to food producers — during the tradition the people began as hunter-gatherers and became dependent on food production (55% or more) by the end of the tradition. Food production includes combinations of hunting, gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture
Primarily hunter-gatherers — depend mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing (55% percent or more)
Horticulturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on simple agriculture (extensive or horticulture). Horticulture frequently requires a long fallow period. This category includes any type of agriculture that is not primarily (55% or more) intensive.
Agro-pastoralists — not any of the above. Pastoralism and horticulture/intensive agriculture combined contribute at least 75% or more to the economy.
Pastoralists — depend mostly (55% or more) on herding or pastoralism
Horticulture to intensive agriculture — at the beginning of the tradition, people depended mostly (55% or more) on horticulture and by the end of the tradition they depended mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture.
Intensive agriculturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture means a variety of techniques are used so that fields can be permanently cultivated. These techniques can include irrigation, terracing, crop rotation, plows, and/or some sort of agriculture.
Other subsistence combinations — includes other combinations of hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture
Not assigned — not enough information
Where can Traditions, Regions, Subsistence and Sample types be found in eHRAF?
Overviews of the archaeological traditions can be found in the Browse Tradition section of eHRAF Archaeology, or searched in combination with subjects and keywords in Advanced Search.
In eHRAF Archaeology, a search query can be refined by sample and subsistence type. This is done after a search in the culture results page.Related Link: