The Pashtun inhabit southern and eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. Their language is Pushto (Pashto), in the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Except for a small minority, they are Sunni Muslims. Until recently, Pashtun dynasties controlled the tribal kingdom of Afghanistan. Agriculture, primarily grain farming, and animal husbandry are the most important activities in the Pashtun economy. The most important crop is wheat. In addition to raising stock, nomads as well as some farmers engage in trade and moneylending. The presence of the border dividing Pashtun territory into two countries also makes smuggling a lucrative pursuit.
Learn more about the Pashtun in eHRAF World Cultures.