Found 387 Documents across 39 Pages (0.009 seconds)
  1. Spread of cattle led to the loss of matrilineal descent in Africa: a coevolutionary analysisHolden, Clare Janki - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 2003 - 2 Hypotheses

    Through phylogenetic comparison, Holden and Mace explore the relationship between descent and cattle among a sample of 68 Bantu/Bantoid-speaking populations in Africa. The authors posit that when matrilineal cultures adopt cattle, they become patrilineal. Possible theories are offered to explain trends and variation in the data.

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  2. The island biogeography of languagesGavin, Michael C. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2012 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper examines the enormous variation in linguistic diversity among Pacific Islands by testing its relationship with various environmental variables put forth in several common theories of language richness. The researchers identify variables relating to land area and island isolation as accounting for about half of variation in linguistic diversity, suggesting that the other half is a result of complex social factors.

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  3. The biogeographic origins of novelty-seeking traitsGören, Erkan - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researcher looks for empirical evidence of natural selection as an explanation for worldwide variation in novelty-seeking behavior. Examining the relationship between variability in frequency of the DRD4 exon III 7-repeat allele variant (a variant theorized to stifle dopamine reception and thus encourage compensatory novelty-seeking behavior) and migratory distance from prehistoric humans' origin point in East Africa yields a positive correlation. After controlling for various biogeographic indicators, the researcher theorizes that presence of the DRD4 exon III 7-repeat variant provided an exploratory urge and evolutionary advantage to hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who migrated into unfamiliar environments.

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  4. Hunter-gatherers and the origins of religionPeoples, Hervey C. - Human Nature, 2016 - 6 Hypotheses

    What is the evolutionary sequence of beliefs in hunter-gatherers? The authors attempt to answer this question by reconstructing the development of various traits in traditional societies using phylogenetic and linguistic source trees. Testing for correlated evolution between this reconstruction and population history as proxied by linguistic classification suggests the presence of animism at profound time depth, aligning with classical anthropological religious theory put forth by E.B. Tylor. Coevolutions between other religious concepts including shamanism, ancestor worship, active ancestor worship, high gods, active high gods, and belief in an afterlife are also examined.

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  5. Human securities, sustainability, and migration in the ancient U.S. Southwest and Mexican NorthwestIngram, Scott E. - Ecology and Society, 2021 - 1 Hypotheses

    Information from the archaeological record from 9 culture areas was used to explore the influence of human insecurities on the rate of depopulation in the U.S. Southwest and Mexican Northwest region during the 1300 to 1400s. The authors found that as the sum of human insecurities increased in culture areas, the speed of depopulation also increased. They hope to relate these findings to modern sustainability planning and to advocate with the UN Development Programme for increased human security.

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  6. Migration, external warfare, and matrilocal residenceDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 1974 - 3 Hypotheses

    Several theories on the development of matrilocal residence are tested. The main argument put forth predicts that matrilocal residence will develop in response to a need to break up fraternal interest groups that encourage internal war and instead encourage a pattern of external war that is more beneficial in populated regions with additional group migration.

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  7. The transmission of democracy: from the village to the nation-stateGiuliano, Paola - The American Economic Review, 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper adds to a body of research which analyzes the persistence of institutional features in societies over time by testing for association between local democracy (succession by consensus among preindustrial groups) and various measures of democracy in contemporary societies. The researchers conclude that beliefs and values which perceive democracy as a viable political structure may be an important mediating mechanism in producing and maintaining democratic instututions over time.

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  8. Rethinking polygyny: co-wives, codes, and cultural systemsWhite, Douglas R. - Current Anthropology, 1988 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article "focuses on internal relationships in the organization of polygynous systems." The author presents new codes for polygyny and tests hypotheses regarding "complexes" of polygynous variables: wealth-increasing polygyny and sororal polygyny. It is asserted that polygyny is produced by a variety of factors and circumstances, and that regional historical, demographic, and ecological forces require attention in order to understand its acceptance and practice.

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  9. The Origins and Maintenance of Female Genital Modification across AfricaRoss, Cody T. - Human Nature, 2016 - 1 Hypotheses

    The researchers develop and compare two evolutionary models to evaluate the association between social stratification and female genital modification(FGMo) in a cross-cultural African sample, theorizing that social hierarchy creates competition for high-value males in which FGMo acts as a costly demonstration of paternity certainty. Although the null model outperforms the stratification model when applied to empirical data, an association between FGMo and stratification is found in the expected direction. The authors suggest that while stratification may be an important factor in the de novo origins of FGMo, spread and persistence of the practice subsequently become more heavily dependent on other selective forces.

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  10. Numerosity structures the expression of quantity in lexical numbers and grammatical numberOvermann, Karenleigh A. - Current Anthropology, 2015 - 4 Hypotheses

    In order to examine the development of lexical numbers (LN), the linguistic rules which allow for expression of high quantities and complex numerical operations, Overmann examines LN's association with grammatical number (GN), an expression of quantity based on the distinction between singular and multiple entities. LN and GN generally occur together, but LN is also found in a significant number of societies lacking GN, indicating that the two are both independent and related. A subsequent analysis of geographic distribution of LNs and GN indicates that LN may emerge prior to GN as a result of the interaction of numerosity (the ability to perceive different quantities) with tactile engagement with material structures (e.g. tools, the hand) which may subsequently lead to the development of GN. Overmann examines the theoretical implications of and explanations for these findings, and discusses how the present study contributes to the knowledge of linguistic frameworks.

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