Found 579 Documents across 58 Pages (0.065 seconds)
  1. Alternatives to the grandmother hypothesis: a meta-analysis of the association between grandparental and grandchild survival in patrilineal populationsStrassmann, Beverly I. - Human Nature, 2011 - 1 Hypotheses

    Authors conduct a meta-analysis of 17 studies that tested for an association between grandparental survival and grandchild survival in patrilineal populations. Results show that the survival of the maternal grandparents is significantly related to the survival of the grandchild. The survival of the parternal grandparents is not associated with grandchild survival. The authors compare their results to previous hypotheses that relate grandparental and grandoffspring survival and find that there results are most in line with the Local Resource Competition Hypothesis.

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  2. Infant and child death in the human environment of evolutionary adaptationVolk, Anthony A. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    High infant and child mortality rates are suggested to be one of the most enduring and important features of ancestral human environments, referred to as the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA). These rates contrast with the very low rates of infant and child mortality among many industrialized nations since the 19th and 20th centuries. The authors compare data from recent hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies, historical records, and non-human primates in attempt to quantitatively describe infant and child mortality rates during the EEA.

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  3. Socio-cultural values are risk factors for COVID-19-related mortalityEndress, Ansgar D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper proposes that the socio-cultural values of countries may be associated with increased mortality due to COVID-19. Using results from the World Values survey, the author assessed which values had the strongest association with a change in COVID-19 mortality in datasets consisting of all countries, upper-middle and high income economies, upper-middle income economies, high income economies, and advanced economies. The author also sought to determine whether the WVS values that were associated with COVID-19 mortality were also associated with general life expectancy. The results showed that COVID-19 mortality was increased in countries that placed a higher value on freedom of speech, political participation, religion, technocracy, post-materialism, social tolerance, law and order, and acceptance of authority. On the other hand, mortality was decreased in countries with high trust in major companies and institutions and that endorsed maintenance of order as a goal for a country. The author also found that values related to COVID-19 mortality did not predict general health outcomes, and that some values that predicted increased COVID-19 mortality actually predicted decreased mortality from other outcomes.

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  4. Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective across the lifespanPlacek, Caitlyn D. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2012 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study provides the first tests of the relationships between population-level adolescent fertility rates and mortality risk at two different time points. The hypotheses are based in life-history theory, which predicts that human reproductive choices are shaped by mortality. The authors find that reproductive strategies are significantly predicted by both early (between ages 1-7) risks of mortality and current cues of mortality risk.

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  5. The effects of mortality, subsistence, and ecology on human adult height and implicationsMigliano, Andrea Bamberg - Current Anthropology, 2012 - 1 Hypotheses

    By better understanding the factors influencing adult height in modern populations, the authors hope to generate a testable hypothesis to determine the factors affecting body size during hominin evolution. The authors employ an exploratory linear regression model to test the effects of mortality, environment, and subsistence strategy on adult height among traditional small scale human societies. They found that mortality rates were the most significant predictor of adult height and that people living in savanna environments are consistently taller.

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  6. Sexually transmitted disease and gender roles: an index of cultural evolutionMackey, Wade C. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and several parameters of a nation’s demography, including income, mortality, labor, fertility, and homicide rates. Associations were supported by statistical tests. Regional differences are considered; Europe and the Muslim area had lower level of women’s HIV/AIDS infection. Four cultural adaptations to combat STDs are discussed.

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  7. Pacifying Hunter-GatherersHames, Raymond - Human Nature, 2019 - 1 Hypotheses

    In this article Hames addresses the long-standing disagreements between evolutionary theories regarding human warfare (more specifically between Rousseauian and Hobbesian frameworks). This study posits that while most current and previous research focuses on the discrepancies between the frequency and intensity with which warfare takes place between hunter-gatherer and large-scale societies, the ability for societies to live in peace with their neighbors despite the possibility for warfare, is the most important evolutionary trait. Coexisting peacefully is what distinguishes human socially and politically from chimpanzees whereas warfare itself is a more primitive trait humans share with previous ancestors. Hames concludes that going forward, use of phylogenetic methods to control for common ancestry, and use of archaeological data would lead to new and more comprehensive findings. Although largely a review of principal warfare literature, Hames does present an original statistical finding on adult violence mortality which is reported below.

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  8. Fitness consequences of spousal relatedness in 46 small-scale societiesBailey, Drew H. - Biology letters, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors predict that fitness outcomes will be negatively associated with spousal relatedness among foragers but positively associated among non-foragers, due to the greater social benefits of intensive kinship systems among non-foragers. Support is found for this hypothesis; however, an interaction effect is discovered with inbreeding, which appears to account for the variability in these relationships independent of subsistence activity. The authors qualify this support in order to explain why the incidence of cousin-marriage in non-foraging societies is not higher.

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  9. Impact of societal culture on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality across countriesKumar, Rajiv - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article aims to demonstrate the effects of national culture on countries’ COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates when controlling for GDP and population age over 65. The author measured various cultural dimensions derived from GLOBE and tested it against the country’s COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. The author found a significant relationship between culture and COVID-19 outcomes suggesting that culture, beyond only GDP and age, may predict COVID-19 outcomes.

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  10. Men’s status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategyvon Rueden, Christopher R. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers examine associations between male status and various measures of reproductive success among foraging/non-foraging, and monogamous/polygynous societies in order to test the "egalitarian hypothesis" which predicts lower status effects in hunter-gatherer groups. Contrary to this hypothesis, they find that male social status is equally significantly associated with reproductive success in foraging and nonforaging societies. Additional support is found for the "mating effort" hypothesis, which predicts that male reproductive success will be more associated with fertility than offspring mortality in polygynous societies, leading the authors to make various suggestions regarding the evolutionary mechanisms at play.

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