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  1. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnick, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 9 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the authors utilize phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolution of land tenure norms among 97 Austronesian societies. They coded these norms for each society as none (N), group (G), group-kin (K), and individual (I). After formulating various models of evolution through these various stages, they used Bayesian analysis to determine support for each. They conclude with remarks about this type of evolutionary phylogenetic research as a form of "virtual archeology."

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  2. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnik, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The researchers use phylogenetic methods to map out the evolutionary trajectories of land tenure norms across 97 Austronesian societies. The analysis suggests the relevance of vertical transmission in patterning land tenure norms, rather than horizontal transmission. It also strongly supports a model along a N(none)-I(individual)-G(group)-K(kin) pathway.

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  3. Post-marital residence patterns show lineage-specific evolutionMoravec, Jiri C. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine post-marital residence patterns across five language phylogenies encompassing 371 ethnolinguistic groups. These language families are the Austronesian (Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific), Bantu (Sub-Saharan Africa), Indo-European (Eurasia), Pama-Nyungan (Australia), and Uto-Aztecan (Western USA and Mesoamerica). Contrary to the study's predictions, post-marital residence patterns did not evolve in similar ways across geographical regions but at a pace specific to its lineage.

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  4. Social Practice and Shared History, Not Social Scale, Structure Cross-Cultural Complexity in Kinship SystemsRácz, Péter - Topics in Cognitive Science, 2019 - 6 Hypotheses

    Researchers examined kinships terminology systems for explanations regarding specifically observed typology of kin terms for cousins cross-culturally. They explore two theories, the first relating to population size via bottleneck evolution, and the second relating to social practices that shape kinship systems. Using the Ethnographic Atlas within D-PLACE, 936 societies with kinship system information were studied. The findings did not suggest a relationship between increased community size and a decrease in kinship complexity, however the research does suggest a relationship between practices of marriage and descent and kinship complexity.

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  5. A worldwide view of matriliny: using cross-cultural analyses to shed light on human kinship systemsSurowiec, Alexandra - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2019 - 10 Hypotheses

    This article tested multiple previous hypotheses for associations between matriliny and cultural traits typically associated with stability and loss (subsistence strategy, animal domestication, mating system, residence pattern, wealth transfer, and property succession). Combining both genetic and linguistic data, researchers formed a phylogenetic ‘supertree’ that includes 16 matrilineal populations. Using this dataset they performed various analyses to assess patterns of evolution of matriliny and matrilocality.

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  6. The Matrilocal Tribe: An Organization of Demic ExpansionJones, Doug - Human Nature, 2011 - 2 Hypotheses

    In this article, the author argues that matrilocality is a form of social organization that is conducive to expansion in tribal societies with smaller populations. Because this organization increases internal solidarity and success in external warfare, the theory suggests that it is best suited for expansion on cultural frontiers by groups with small populations. The author supports this theory with empirical tests on 33 societies and case studies of Bantu and Austronesian expansion.

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  7. Comparative phylogenetic analyses uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktalesDa Silva, Sara Graça - Royal Society open science, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    The authors compare language phylogenies and spatial distributions with folktale frequencies of Indo-European peoples in order to reconstruct their cultural transmission. A stronger association is found between folktale frequency and language phylogeny than has been proposed in earlier literature studies, indicating that vertical transmission is more influential on folktale distribution than horizontal transmission through spatial proximity. Finally, the frequencies of certain folktales appear to trace the ancestral divergences of Indo-European languages to a much deeper level than previously though, suggesting that folktales are representative of broader features of culture, rather than recent literary inventions.

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  8. Evolution of initiation rites during the Austronesian dispersalBentley, R. Alexander - Science Progress, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper builds on previous Austronesian dispersal research that indicated rituals and social complexity gave rise to each other, by examining if marital residence and initiation rites co-evolved during the dispersal. Using a phylogenetic test and initiation data from 79 societies, the authors found evidence that female and male initiation rites co-evolved during the dispersal and were most stable when both initiation rites were present. The authors also suggest that proto-Austronesian society probably lacked initiation rites and such rites only developed later.

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  9. Migration, external warfare, and matrilocal residenceDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 1974 - 3 Hypotheses

    Several theories on the development of matrilocal residence are tested. The main argument put forth predicts that matrilocal residence will develop in response to a need to break up fraternal interest groups that encourage internal war and instead encourage a pattern of external war that is more beneficial in populated regions with additional group migration.

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  10. An explanation for matrilocal residenceDivale, William Tulio - Being Female: Reproduction, Power, and Change, 1975 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study explores possible causes of matrilocal residence. Previous hypotheses are unsupported. Results show a significant relationship between matrilocality and recent migration.

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