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  1. Reproductive immunosuppression and diet: an evolutionary perspective on pregnancy sickness and meat consumptionFessler, Daniel M.T. - Current Anthropology, 2002 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines meat avoidance during pregnancy as an evolutionary adaptation. Data suggests that during pregnancy, meat avoidance is significantly more common cross-culturally than other types of food avoidance. The timing of meat avoidance, the presence of meat-borne pathogens, and sensory and ingestive changes in early pregnancy are also discussed.

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  2. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Hunter-Gatherer Social LearningGarfield, Zachary H. - Social Learning and Innovation in Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers, 2016 - 10 Hypotheses

    Social scientists are equivocal as to the importance of teaching (as contrasted with other forms of learning) in traditional societies. While many cultural anthropologists have downplayed the importance of teaching, cognitive psychologists often argue that teaching is a salient human universal. Here the authors investigate cultural transmission among 23 hunter-gatherer populations to explore the relative importance of teaching among foragers.

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  3. Pubic Hair Removal Practices in Cross-Cultural PerspectiveCraig, Lyndsey K. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researcher's examine the presence of pubic hair removal (PHR) and retention in a cross-cultural setting, looking to see if such practices exist outside of the West, where it is well documented. Data from societies with PHR or retention from the eHRAF World Cultures sample were analyzed. Results indicate that PHR or retention exists cross-culturally without influence from the West. Commonly practiced for hygiene, women remove or retain pubic hair more often than men, with the main methods for removal being plucking.

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  4. "Listen Carefully to the Voices of the Birds": A Comparative Review of Birds as SignsWyndham, Felice S. - Journal of Ethnobiology, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article conducts a cross-cultural, comparative review of whether birds are bearers of signs using eHRAF World Cultures and published articles. The researchers first examine whether birds are thought of as signifiers and the mode of sign delivery be it voice, presence, or behavior. They also investigate whether biocultural salience is more indicative of passerines, near-passerines, or non-passerines.

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  5. Drivers of insect consumption across human populationsCruz y Celis Peniche, Patricio - Evolutionary Anthropology, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to shed light on the practice of entomophagy (insect consumption) across human population and seeks to explain the variability in its practice. The author explore potential ecological predictors for insect consumption (climate, subsistence practices, other available food resources, dietary needs) as well as cultural predictors (social transmission, cultural norms, evolution, and shift). Ultimately, the author concludes that entomophagy may be a useful medium through which to examine the interaction between social learning, subsistence strategies, and modernization.

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  6. Male genital mutilation: an adaptation to sexual conflictWilson, Christopher G. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2008 - 8 Hypotheses

    This article examines the "sexual conflict" hypothesis which predicts that male genital mutilation should be associated with polygyny and a reduction in the frequency of extramarital sex. Male genital mutilation (MGM) rituals should be highly public and facilitate access to social benefits. Support for these assumptions is provided.

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  7. In Search of Human Placentophagy: A Cross-Cultural Survey of Human Placenta Consumption, Disposal Practices, and Cultural BeliefsYoung, Sharon M. - Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2010 - 4 Hypotheses

    The present research examines the consumption, treatment, and disposal of the human placenta in a sample of 179 societies. The findings reveal differences between placental mammals and humans as maternal placentophagy, the consumption of the placenta, is rare. Treatment and disposal of the placenta is variable but ubiquitous cross-culturally.

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  8. Children's play in cross-cultural perspective: a new look at the six cultures studyEdwards, Carolyn Pope - Cross-Cultural Research, 2000 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study reanalyzes data from a previous study on variations in children's play from the Six Cultures project. Data described four types of play: role play, fantasy play, imaginative play, and creative-constructive play. Results shed light on the interplay between cultural, historial, economic and material conditions on the type and amount of play, as well as gender differences in play.

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  9. Cultural adaptations after progressionismMcCall, Lauren W. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2009 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article challenges ideas of cultural progressionism through an analysis of counting systems. Cultural adaptation in both biotic and abiotic environments is examined, and results suggest that culture adapts to both the human-made environment and the physical environment. The author asserts that “interpreting divergent and convergent behaviors as due to differences and similarities of local environments” is superior to a progressionist approach to cultural change (62).

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  10. A Cross-Cultural Summary: Male Initiation RitesTextor, Robert B. - , 1967 - 14 Hypotheses

    Textor summarizes cross-cultural male initiation rites findings pertaining to cultural, environmental, psychological, and social phenomena.

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