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  1. Testing the bargaining vs. inclusive fitness models of suicidal behavior against the ethnographic recordSyme, Kristen L. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2015 - 2 Hypotheses

    Authors examine suicidality within small-scale non-industrial societies. They use ethnographic data to test two models: deCatanzaro's inclusive fitness model and the bargaining model (suicide attempts as a costly signal of need). Limited support is found for deCatanzaro's inclusive fitness model while strong support is found for the bargaining model. Support for deCatanzaro's inclusive fitness model increased with increasing latitude; authors suggest that in climactically-harsher environments, in which elderly or infirm individuals may impose a higher burden on kin, completed suicide occurs more because it might increase inclusive fitness. Fit of and support for each model were differentially age-dependent.

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  2. Punishment and social organization: a study of durkheim's theory of penal evolutionSpitzer, Steven - Law & Society Review, 1975 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study empirically tests Durkheim’s theories of punishment in a sample of preindustrial societies. Analysis shows little support for five hypotheses derived from Durkheim’s theories. Findings indicate that in preindustrial societies, the intensity of punishment is associated with political integration, there are fewer collective definitions of crime, there is a higher likelihood of using material sanctions; additionally, slavery is likely to be an institutionalized means of punishment in societies with harsher sanctions.

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  3. The ultimate coercive sanctionOtterbein, Keith F. - , 1986 - 14 Hypotheses

    The author presents a comprehensive study on the prevalence, presentation, and motivation of the "ultimate coercive sanction": capital punishment, or the "death penalty". He begins by examining capital punishment across all 53 cultures for which data was present in the Probability Sample Files, and finds that capital punishment is overwhelmingly present. After discerning some general trends, the author examines how capital punishment presents itself across different kinds of political systems, and uses the results to voice support for various theories on why the capital punishment is practiced. The study concludes by stating that the capital punishment may be something that human society may never be truly rid of, but greater societal stability may be able to reduce its prevalence.

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  4. Societal complexity: an empirical test of a typology of societiesFreeman, Linton C. - American Journal of Sociology, 1957 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study investigates the concept of societal complexity, using empirical analysis to test whether its components (written language, government, etc.) vary systematically. Results suggest that societal complexity is a valid composite measure.

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  5. The Effectiveness of Indigenous Conflict Management Strategies in Localized ContextsLundy, Brandon D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 4 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand how the conflict resolution strategies of indigenous and non-indigenous groups differ in their efficacy. The authors suggest that indigenous methods of conflict resolution are more effective than non-indigenous methods by demonstrating that subjects from the Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM) associated with indigenous conflict management (ICM) will co-occur less frequently with OCM terms related to conflict than subjects related to non-ICM. They tested this by selecting OCM subjects that they felt best represented ICM, non-ICM, and instances of conflict and using chi-square tests to show how often these subjects co-occurred. They subsequently split up the "conflict" variable into four forms of conflict in order to show whether any of these forms might be more frequently found associated with ICM or non-ICM subjects. The results showed that conflict subjects were more likely to co-occur with non-ICM subjects, and that sociocultural/interpersonal conflicts were more likely to be associated with ICM subjects, whereas political conflicts were more likely to be associated with non-ICM subjects.

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  6. Suicide and mutilation behaviors in non-literate societiesLester, David - Psychological Reports, 1971 - 1 Hypotheses

    This paper tests for a relationship between practices of mutilation and self-torture and the incidence of suicidal behavior in preindustrial, nonliterate societies. Several hypotheses are tested but none supported.

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  7. Suicide, homicide, and the effects of socializationLester, David - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study tests for an association between displays of aggression and socialization techniques in preindustrial societies. Analysis suggests there is no relationship between discipline techniques and homicidal or suicidal behavior.

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  8. Murder and suicide in forty non-literate societiesPalmer, Stuart - Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 1965 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper tests assumptions regarding the inverse relationship between murder and suicide. Analysis suggests that murder and suicide in fact vary together, and they are also positively associated with overall punishment in a society.

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  9. Costly punishment across human societiesHenrich, Joseph - Science, 2006 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study examines costly punishment behavior across cultures. Authors conducted economic games in a variety of societies and found that costly punishment behavior occurs to varied degrees across cultures. Results also suggest that altruistic behavior is associated with costly punishment behavior.

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  10. The relation between discipline experiences and the expression of aggressionLester, David - American Anthropologist, 1967 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper investigates the relationship between discipline experiences in preindustrial societies and aggressive behavior at the societal level. No associations are found between discipline experiences and suicide, murder, aggression resulting from alcohol consumption, or aggression expressed in war-making.

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