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  1. The dead may kill you: Do ancestor spirit beliefs promote cooperation in traditional small-scale societiesWhite, Claire - The Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    Using 57 cultures from the Human Relations Area Files database, this paper examines the function and effectiveness of the belief of punitive ancestors in small-scale societies. The authors found that belief in dangerous ancestral entities is widespread and common and that harm is preventable through ritualized mortuary practices. The authors concluded that the fear of ancestral spirits did not promote social cooperation or inhibit self-interest behavior, contrary to the supernatural punishment hypothesis.

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  2. The Church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variationSchulz, Jonathan F. - Science, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article draws from anthropology, psychology, and history to gain insight into the causes of large-scale psychological variation among humans. The authors of this study are mainly concerned with the way that weak kinship structures induced by policies of the Western Church in Europe may have resulted in the modern "WEIRD" (an acronym for "Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic") psychological profiles in that same region. By correlating the amount of contact with the Western Church, rates of cross-cousin marriage (as an element of kin tightness), and degrees of individualism (as an element of WEIRD psychology), the authors are able to find support for this theory.

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  3. Function predicts how people treat their dogs in a global sampleChira, Angela M. - Nature Scientific Reports, 2023 - 3 Hypotheses

    The article discusses how our understanding of dog-human bonds, dog behavior, and dog cognition is limited to Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) societies, and the question of whether associations between dogs and humans are representative worldwide. The study collected data on the function and perception of dogs in 124 globally distributed societies using the eHRAF cross-cultural database. The results showed that keeping dogs for multiple purposes and/or employing dogs for highly cooperative or high investment functions is associated with closer dog-human bonds, increased primary caregiving, decreased negative treatment, and attributing personhood to dogs. The study challenges the notion that all dogs are the same and opens questions about how function and associated cultural correlates could fuel departures from the ‘typical’ behavior and social-cognitive skills we commonly associate with our canine friends.

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  4. Gender differences in cooperation across 20 societies: a meta-analysisSpadaro, Giuliana - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2022 - 4 Hypotheses

    How do men and women cooperate with others? Previous research has claimed that men and women cooperate in different manners. However, using a meta-analytic approach, the authors of this article find that men and women actually cooperate to a similar extent. They consider differences in cooperation to be a response to specific societal situations and contexts.

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  5. Is It Good to Cooperate? Testing the Theory of Morality-as-Cooperation in 60 SocietiesCurry, Oliver Scott - Current Anthropology, 2019 - 8 Hypotheses

    The present study examines 60 societies from the Probability Sample Files to see if there is a cross-cultural moral valence of seven cooperative behaviors. These behaviors include: being brave, deferring to superiors, dividing disputed resources, helping kin, helping your group, reciprocating, and respecting prior possessions. The results offer support for the theory of morality-as-cooperation that these seven behaviors tend to be widely held morals across cultures.

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  6. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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  7. Cross-Cultural Invariances in the Architecture of ShameSznycer, Daniel - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study looks at the possibility of a universal system of social valuation by examining the correlation between shame and devaluation. Researchers conducted an experiment among 899 participants from 15 communities of high cultural variation in order to test if similar relationships between shame and devaluation exist independently of cultural contact or cultural evolution. The findings reveal that shame and devaluation are closely linked both between individuals and members of a local audience, as well as cross-culturally.

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  8. Cross-cultural correlates of the ownership of private property: Zelman's gender data revisitedRudmin, Floyd Webster - Cross-Cultural Research, 1996 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article analyzes the predictors of private property ownership with an aim to replicate existing correlations using data from the dissertation of Zelman (1974).

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  9. Was the Duchess of Windsor right?: A cross-cultural review of the socioecology of ideals of female body shapeAnderson, Judith L. - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1992 - 7 Hypotheses

    Cultures vary widely in regards to beauty standards for female body fat: while industrialized nations typically prefer thinness in women, ethnographic reports indicate that plumpness is valued in many small-scale societies. Here the authors evaluate several hypotheses that relate variation in female body fat preference to variation in socioecology such as food storage, climate, male social dominance, valuation and restriction of women's work, and female stress during adolescence.

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  10. Preferred interpersonal distances: A global comparisonSorokowska, Agnieszka - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2017 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors assess and compare preferred interpersonal distances over 42 countries. Environmental and sociopsychological factors are tested in order to explain variability in interpersonal distance across cultures. The authors seek to go beyond previous studies and better understand cultural differences and similarities in proxemic behaviors.

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