Found 613 Documents across 62 Pages (0.011 seconds)
  1. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnik, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The researchers use phylogenetic methods to map out the evolutionary trajectories of land tenure norms across 97 Austronesian societies. The analysis suggests the relevance of vertical transmission in patterning land tenure norms, rather than horizontal transmission. It also strongly supports a model along a N(none)-I(individual)-G(group)-K(kin) pathway.

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  2. Population aggregation and the Anasazi social landscape: A view from the four cornersAdler, Michael A. - The Ancient Southwestern Community: Models and Methods for the Study of Prehistoric Social Organization, 1990 - 1 Hypotheses

    Using both archaeological data from the Mesa Verde region and a Human Relations Area Files random sample of 25 worldwide societies, and another 10 from the American Southwest, the author looked to examine the relationship between changes in community size and settlements, agriculture intensification, and rules governing resource access. In particular the researcher wanted to examine the size of the group that controls the primary access to the main resource. After studying this global sample, the author takes an ethnographic look specifically at the Northern Anasazi in southewestern Colorado.

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  3. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptationMathew, Sarah - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2015 - 8 Hypotheses

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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  4. Folktale transmission in the arctic provides evidence for high bandwidth social learning among hunter–gatherer groupsRoss, Robert M. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2016 - 4 Hypotheses

    The myths, legends, and folktales of nearby groups tend to more alike than those of more distant groups. Three competing models attempt to explain this distribution of cultural traits: (1) vertical transmission, (2) horizontal transmission, and (3) independent innovation. The authors examine 18 Arctic hunter-gatherer groups to quantify the extent to which geographic distance, cultural ancestry, and effective population size predict overlap in folktale inventories.

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  5. The island biogeography of languagesGavin, Michael C. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2012 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper examines the enormous variation in linguistic diversity among Pacific Islands by testing its relationship with various environmental variables put forth in several common theories of language richness. The researchers identify variables relating to land area and island isolation as accounting for about half of variation in linguistic diversity, suggesting that the other half is a result of complex social factors.

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  6. Communities of Soil and Stone- An Archaeological Investigation of Population AggregationAdler, Michael A. - Chapters 4 & 5, 1990 - 6 Hypotheses

    The dissertation in its entirety is an archaeological investigation of population aggregation among the Mesa Verde region Anasazi A.D. 900-1300. Chapters four and five of Adlers larger work focus on cross-cultural perspectives to inform discussion around resource access and community strength. Multiple different hypotheses were tested with different data sets, but the HRAF database and Standard Cross Cultural Sample were used throughout.

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  7. Phoneme inventory size and population sizeHay, Jennifer - Language, 2007 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study found that the more language speakers there are, the more phonemes in the language. In addition, the more language speakers, the more vowels and consonants. While some language families have more phonemes than others, this did not affect the results. The goal of this paper was only to illustrate a link between the two and the authors hope this work encourages further examination into this relationship.

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  8. An equilibrium conflict model of land tenure in hunter-gatherer societiesBaker, Matthew - The Journal of Political Economy, 2003 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines land ownership and territoriality among hunter-gatherers in relation to resource density and predictability and defense technology. A model is presented and briefly tested on a cross-cultural sample of 14 hunter-gatherer societies. Results suggest that societies in more resource-rich areas will be more territorial than societies in less resource-rich areas.

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  9. Private lands and common oceans: analysis of the development of property regimesAcheson, James M. - Current Anthropology, 2015 - 1 Hypotheses

    In this article, the author departs from previous research on common vs. private property ownership predictors to understand why ocean property rights often play out differently than land. As opposed to the dominant hypothesis that common property regimes will change to private property when resources are scarce and population increases, the author proposes economic defendability (the relationship between the value of the property and the cost to defend it) as a better predictor of property regime type.

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  10. Gains to cooperation drive the evolution of egalitarianismHooper, Paul L. - Nature Human Behavior, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article is mainly concerned with understanding the motivators toward egalitarianism through modeling via a game that combined elements from both hawk-dove and prisoners dilemma. While most of the article is focused on this model, the researchers also tested their hypotheses cross-culturally on a sample of forager societies. In both cases, they found evidence that the benefits of cooperation drove egalitarianism.

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