Found 633 Documents across 64 Pages (0.052 seconds)
  1. Resource stress and subsistence diversification across societiesEmber, Carol R. - Nature Sustainability, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using a cross-cultural sample of 91 societies, this paper draws on ecological theory to test if unpredictable environments will favor subsistence diversification. The general hypothesis is that societies with high climate unpredictability and resource stress would exhibit more subsistence diversity than societies in more stable climates. The authors examined four environmental and resource stress variables while controlling for temperature variance, subsistence activity, and phylogeny. Support was found for 2 of the 4 variables--chronic scarcity and environmental instability. In the discussion they suggest that more commonly observed events (e.g. annual hunger and climate unpredictability) may give people more motivation to change subsistence than rarer events (e.g. natural hazards and famine).

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  2. Why on earth?: Evaluating hypotheses about the physiological functions of human geophagyYoung, Sera L. - The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2011 - 5 Hypotheses

    The author tests various hypotheses regarding cross-cultural occurrence of geophagy, the eating of earth. Nearly 500 years of references to geophagy were compiled into the Database on Human Geophagy, which was then used to examine biological justifications for this little-understood behavior.

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  3. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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  4. Resource Unpredictability, mistrust, and war: a cross-cultural studyEmber, Carol R. - The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1992 - 6 Hypotheses

    The article tests theories that may explain why warfare frequency varies from society to society. The focus is on ecological problems, particularly different kinds of resource scarcity, but social and psychological theories are also tested with both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Because unpredictable disasters are such a strong predictor in nonstate societies, the authors theorize that war may mostly be caused by a fear of nature.

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  5. Cultural dimensions: a factor analysis of textor's a cross-cultural summaryStewart, Robert A. C. - Behavior Science Notes, 1972 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the key variables underlying the many cross-cultural associations reported by Textor (1967). Twelve factors are identified.

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  6. Men's hetersexual fear due to reciprocal inhibitionKitahara, Michio - Ethos, 1981 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article presents a reanalysis of a study by Ember (1978) examining the predictors of men's heterosexual fear. The author finds that Ember's model is not upheld and presents a new model of men's heterosexual fear using path analysis. Results suggest that mother-child sleeping arrangements and food shortage are directly related to men's heterosexual fear.

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  7. A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societiesJackson, Joshua Conrad - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2020 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds on previous cross-country and cross-state research into Tightness-Looseness (TL) theory, which proposes relationships between the incidence of ecological threat and cultural tightness, as well as tightness’ downstream effects on belief in a moralizing high god, inter-group contact and authoritarian leadership. To evaluate the generalizability of TL theory beyond complex cultures, the authors test these relationships among 86 nonindustrial societies from the ethnographic record. A structural equation model is presented of the results for nonindustrial societies; it is generally in accord with previous findings from more complex societies. Because the nonindustrial sample is more variable, they also look at relationships between societal complexity and kinship heterogeneity, aspects that vary in nonindustrial societies.

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  8. Risk, uncertainty, and violence in eastern Africa: a regional comparisonEmber, Carol R. - Human Nature, 2012 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article examines resource problems and warfare in a sample of societies from eastern Africa. The frequency and predictability of resource problems are examined, as are two other dimensions of warfare: resource-taking and commission of atrocities. Differences between state and nonstate societies, as well as pacified and non-pacified societies, are also examined and shown to affect associations between resource and warfare variables.

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  9. Cassava production and processing in a cross-cultural sample of african societiesRomanoff, Steven - Behavior Science Research, 1992 - 12 Hypotheses

    This exploratory study seeks to explain cassava production and processing in Africa by considering cultural, agronomic, and environmental data. After examining the descriptive results of the agricultural and social contexts of cassava use, the authors build upon Boserup's population density model (1965) to analyze their own hypothesized model of cassava's importance among the sampled societies.

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  10. Some correlates of beliefs in the malevolence and benevolence of supernatural beings: a cross societal studyLambert, William W. - Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1959 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article tests hypotheses about the relationship between how the general anticipations of pain in develop in children and the formal belief systems of a society. The authors posit that beliefs in malevolent supernatural beings reflect punitive child rearing practices and beliefs in benevolent supernatural being relfect nurturing child rearing practices. Results generally support this hypothesis.

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