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  1. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the PacificCurrie, Thomas E. - Nature, 2010 - 6 Hypotheses

    A central issue in anthropology is the process through which political organization (sometimes referred to as cultural complexity) evolves: competing models typically argue for either incremental increases in complexity or larger, non-sequential increases in complexity. Here, the authors evaluate six different models of political evolution, utilizing a phylogenetic approach to analyze the evolution of 84 Austronesian-speaking societies.

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  2. Coevolution of landesque capital intensive agriculture and sociopolitical hierarchySheehan, Oliver - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    Using phylogenetic methods, this research examines the relationship between landesque capital intensive agriculture ("permanent changes to landscape, such as construction of terraces and irrigation canals"(3631)) , political complexity, and social stratification amongst 155 Austronesian-speaking societies. Researchers attempted to find an underlying causality between the above mentioned variables, which have already been shown to be cross-culturally related. Results of statistical testing are most consistent with their being no clear causal link between the tested variables. The researchers claim this demonstrates social complexity and the multifaceted nature of cultural evolution.

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  3. Christianity spread faster in small, politically structures societiesWatts, Joseph - Nature Human Behaviour, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    The present study examines 70 Austronesian cultures to test whether political hierarchy, population size, and social inequality have been influential in the conversion of populations to Christianity. Cultural isolation and year of missionary arrival are control variables. Using phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS), the researchers test the effect of the three predictor variables on conversion to Christianity and also conduct a multivariate analysis with all variables. The results do not offer support for what is expected by top-down and bottom-up theories of conversion but instead for the general dynamics of cultural transmission.

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  4. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the PacificCurrie, Thomas E. - Nature, 2010 - 6 Hypotheses

    Using phylogenetic modeling, the researchers test hypotheses for different sequences of political complexity among South-East Asian and Pacific Austronesian-speaking cultures. The research adds to an existing debate between sequential, incremental political evolution models and non-sequential models with larger increases in complexity. The results suggest support for a more sequential unilinear model.

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  5. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in AustronesiaWatts, Joseph - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2015 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors investigate whether moralizing high gods and, more generally, supernatural punishment precede, sustain, or follow political complexity. The cultural traits at hand are mapped onto phylogenetic trees representing the descent and relatedness of 96 Austronesian cultures.

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  6. Social structure and games: a cross-cultural analysis of the structural correlates of game complexitySilver, Burton B. - Pacific Sociological Review, 1978 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article examines the evolution of games, particularly the way the complexity of games is affected by political organization, demographics, social differentiation, and religious differentiation.

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  7. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnik, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The researchers use phylogenetic methods to map out the evolutionary trajectories of land tenure norms across 97 Austronesian societies. The analysis suggests the relevance of vertical transmission in patterning land tenure norms, rather than horizontal transmission. It also strongly supports a model along a N(none)-I(individual)-G(group)-K(kin) pathway.

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  8. Ritual human sacrifice promoted and sustained the evolution of stratified societiesWatts, Joseph - Nature, 2016 - 6 Hypotheses

    The social control hypothesis suggests that ritual human sacrifice may have played an important role in the evolution of social stratification, functioning to legitimize class-based power distinctions by pairing displays of ultimate authority with supernatural justifications. Authors test this hypothesis about human sacrifice with a phylogenetic analysis of 93 Austronesian cultures.

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  9. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnick, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 9 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the authors utilize phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolution of land tenure norms among 97 Austronesian societies. They coded these norms for each society as none (N), group (G), group-kin (K), and individual (I). After formulating various models of evolution through these various stages, they used Bayesian analysis to determine support for each. They conclude with remarks about this type of evolutionary phylogenetic research as a form of "virtual archeology."

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  10. A quantitative global test of the complexity trade-off hypothesis: the case of nominal and verbal grammatical markingShcherbakova, Olena - Linguistics Vanguard, 2023 - 1 Hypotheses

    The "equi-complexity hypothesis" suggests that there is an equal complexity across languages, meaning that there are constant trade-offs between different domains. Using phylogenetic modelling in a sample of 244 languages, this study follows a diachronic perspective to explore if there is an inversed coevolution within the grammatical coding of nominal and verbal domains. The results show that while there appears to be a coevolutionary relationship between some features of these two domains, there is no evidence to support the idea that all languages maintain an overall equilibrium of grammatical complexity. Rather, the correlation nominal and verbal domains vary between lineages. Austronesian languages do not show a coevolution between the domains. Sino-Tibetan languages seem to have a positive correlation while Indo-European languages appear to have a negative correlation, meaning that this inverse coevolution can be lineage specific.

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