Found 1090 Documents across 109 Pages (0.045 seconds)
  1. War Games: Intergroup Coalitional Play Fighting as a Means of Comparative Coalition Formability AssessmentScalise Sugiyama, Michelle - Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 2021 - 6 Hypotheses

    The authors explore coalitional play fighting (in which teams of at least two play against each other to achieve a goal) across hunter-gatherer societies, with the theory that play of this type may be a mechanism for assessing strength and utility for future defense or warfare. When played against other communities, they propose coalitional play fighting can also serve to gauge strength of potential allies or formidability of potential enemies. In order to test their theories, they predict that, despite the large energy cost and risk of sports associated with coalitional play fighting, these types of games will be widespread in hunter-gatherer societies. In addition, they predict that of those exhibiting coalitional play fighting, many will play against other communities. In support of their hypotheses, they find that 54% of hunter-gatherer societies examined exhibit coalitional play fighting, of which 81% play against other communities.

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  2. Cross-cultural correlates of games of chanceRoberts, John M. - Behavior Science Notes, 1966 - 2 Hypotheses

    Authors investigate the cross-cultural correlates of games of chance. They advance a "conflict-enculturation" model to explain why individuals choose to engage in games of chance in particular (as opposed to games of strategy or physical skill). They suggest that games of chance are linked to cultures with antecedent conflict and/or feelings of powerlessness in the presence of uncertainty; both are psychological stressors whose effects may be assuaged by play with uncertainty models in the form of games of chance.

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  3. Games in culture revisited: a replication and extension of roberts, arth, and bush (1959)Chick, Garry - Cross-Cultural Research, 1998 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study replicates the study of games conducted by Roberts, Arth and Bush (1959) using new data. Findings support the results of the original study, suggesting that games of strategy are related to social complexity and games of chance are related to games of physical skill.

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  4. Comparative Study of Territoriality across Forager SocietiesMoritz, Mark - Human Ecology, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers investigated the variation of land tenure systems across forager societies using the economic defensibility model. The study attempted to explain the variation in tenure systems across 30 hunter-gatherer societies. Using data on defense and sharing of resources among groups, and indicators of resource density, resource predictability, and competition for resources, the researchers were unable to explain the variation. This study highlights the vast range of diversity and complexity of foragers subsistence strategies, and proposes that it may be more telling to conceptualize tenure systems among hunter-gatherer societies as assemblages of multiple property regimes. While there was no overall evidence that environmental variables of resource density and predictability explain variation in tenure systems, researchers did find that increasing population density, and greater competition for resources leads to greater territoriality.

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  5. Ritual human sacrifice promoted and sustained the evolution of stratified societiesWatts, Joseph - Nature, 2016 - 6 Hypotheses

    The social control hypothesis suggests that ritual human sacrifice may have played an important role in the evolution of social stratification, functioning to legitimize class-based power distinctions by pairing displays of ultimate authority with supernatural justifications. Authors test this hypothesis about human sacrifice with a phylogenetic analysis of 93 Austronesian cultures.

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  6. Headhunting and Warfare: Evidence from AustronesiaGershman, Boris - , 2023 - 1 Hypotheses

    Why did headhunting- the practice of taking human heads for ritualistic reasons- emerge in many societies? Through phylogenetic comparative analyses of Austronesian societies, the authors find that headhunting developed as a cultural response to frequent inter-tribal conflict and warfare. When warfare declined, the frequency of headhunting did as well.

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  7. Christianity spread faster in small, politically structures societiesWatts, Joseph - Nature Human Behaviour, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    The present study examines 70 Austronesian cultures to test whether political hierarchy, population size, and social inequality have been influential in the conversion of populations to Christianity. Cultural isolation and year of missionary arrival are control variables. Using phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS), the researchers test the effect of the three predictor variables on conversion to Christianity and also conduct a multivariate analysis with all variables. The results do not offer support for what is expected by top-down and bottom-up theories of conversion but instead for the general dynamics of cultural transmission.

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  8. Relations among infants and juveniles in comparative perspectiveKonner, Melvin J. - Social Science Information, 1976 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article investigates peer relations in infancy, both in primates and in preindustrial human societies. Data from these populations shows a strong tendency toward a multi-age composition of play groups rather than solely peer-aged play groups for infants. Patterns in child care across societies of different subsistence types are empirically examined.

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  9. Adolescents at play: a cross-cultural study of adolescent gamesSchlegel, Alice - The Content of Culture: Constants and Variables, 1989 - 5 Hypotheses

    This chapter investigates correlates of competitive adolescent games, focusing on societal and family characteristics as well as socialization variables and personality traits. Data suggest that games meant to encourage competitiveness will be more common for boys than for girls. Competitive games are also statistically associated with low societal and technological complexity, small and monogamous family organization, less physical contact and comfort in infant socialization, less integration in adult activities, and various personality traits.

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  10. Political strategy and cross-cultural variation in gamesPeregrine, Peter N. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2008 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study tests the hypotheses that games of strategy will be more prevalent in societies where political power is based on a "network strategy" and that network societies place more value on the enculturation of obedience in children. Both hypotheses are supported.

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