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  1. A Cross-Cultural Nutrition Survey of 118 Societies, Representing the Major Cultural and Geographic Areas of the WorldWhiting, Marjorie Grant - , 1958 - 22 Hypotheses

    Dietary variation has been implicated in population-level heath outcomes such as adult height and infant health. Here the author investigates these relationships in a sample of 118 nonindustrial societies, providing a comparative and quantitative assessment of nutrition and health cross-culturally.

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  2. Female status, food security, and stature sexual dimorphism: Testing mate choice as a mechanism in human self-domesticationGleeson, Ben Thomas - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    The present study examines the effect of social status on stature sexual dimorphism and whether food security acts as a mediator for this relationship. In societies where females have high social status and can exercise mate choice, there is lower stature sexual dimorphism. Food security enhances these results. Conversely, there is greater stature sexual dimorphism in societies where females have low social status and cannot exercise mate choice, especially if there is food insecurity.

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  3. Socio-cultural values are risk factors for COVID-19-related mortalityEndress, Ansgar D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper proposes that the socio-cultural values of countries may be associated with increased mortality due to COVID-19. Using results from the World Values survey, the author assessed which values had the strongest association with a change in COVID-19 mortality in datasets consisting of all countries, upper-middle and high income economies, upper-middle income economies, high income economies, and advanced economies. The author also sought to determine whether the WVS values that were associated with COVID-19 mortality were also associated with general life expectancy. The results showed that COVID-19 mortality was increased in countries that placed a higher value on freedom of speech, political participation, religion, technocracy, post-materialism, social tolerance, law and order, and acceptance of authority. On the other hand, mortality was decreased in countries with high trust in major companies and institutions and that endorsed maintenance of order as a goal for a country. The author also found that values related to COVID-19 mortality did not predict general health outcomes, and that some values that predicted increased COVID-19 mortality actually predicted decreased mortality from other outcomes.

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  4. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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  5. Birth order in cross-cultural perspectiveRosenblatt, Paul C. - Developmental Psychology, 1974 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study examines the consequences of birth order; results suggest that the firstborn child is more likely to have social authority as they grow older (they have siblings’ respect, they control property or head kin groups, etc.). The authors suggest that this authority may be legitimated by extra attention firstborns receive though elaborate birth ceremonies and teknonymy.

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  6. Subsistence practices and human sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Journal of Human Evolution, 1982 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests the validity of two previous diachronic studies examining the relationship between subsistence strategy and sexual dimorphism of stature with synchronic data. The authors find that neither hypothesis is valid.

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  7. Sociobiology: Another viewMunroe, Robert L. - Reviews in Anthropology, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article suggests that Wilson's definition of sociobiology, which incorporates underlying principles of animal social behavior, can be applied to human bahvior. Specifically, Wilson's assertion that the major ecological conditions associated with monogamy in animal societies, is tested on human societies.

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  8. Correlates of monogamy in human groups: tests of some sociobiological hypothesesGray, J. Patrick - Behavior Science Research, 1984 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study re-examines the hypotheses offered by Kleiman (1977) linking monogamy in humans to monogamy in other animals. Of seven hypotheses, only two were weakly supported when using a cross-cultural analysis.

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  9. Gender inequality in childhood: toward a life course perspectiveBaunach, Dawn Michelle - Gender Issues, 2001 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds upon gender inequality theory to examine childhood gender inequality in preindustrial societies. Multivariate and cluster analysis are used.

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  10. Impact of societal culture on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality across countriesKumar, Rajiv - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article aims to demonstrate the effects of national culture on countries’ COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates when controlling for GDP and population age over 65. The author measured various cultural dimensions derived from GLOBE and tested it against the country’s COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. The author found a significant relationship between culture and COVID-19 outcomes suggesting that culture, beyond only GDP and age, may predict COVID-19 outcomes.

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