Found 643 Documents across 65 Pages (0.009 seconds)
  1. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  2. Hunting and the development of sign language: a cross-cultural testDivale, William Tulio - Journal of Anthropological Research, 1977 - 2 Hypotheses

    The association between hunting and sign language is examined. It is hypothesized that sign language develops as a form of nonverbal communication to aid hunters in the coordinated stalking of game. Ethnographic evidence supports this hypothesis. A second hypothesis is also tested concerning the relationship between population size and non-verbal communication, however sampling procedures provided an inadequate test of this hypothesis.

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  3. Population, warfare, and the male supremacist complexDivale, William Tulio - American Anthropologist, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study focuses on the factors associated with the development and persistence of an ideology of male supremacy. Authors identify several realms of culture that show a clear male preference and suggest that warfare is the most significant cause of the male supremacy complex in preindustrial societies. Authors hypothesize that warfare will be positively related to female infanticide. Results support this hypothesis. Another hypothesis relating diet to warfare and infanticide is provided, but not tested.

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  4. Resource stress and subsistence diversification across societiesEmber, Carol R. - Nature Sustainability, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using a cross-cultural sample of 91 societies, this paper draws on ecological theory to test if unpredictable environments will favor subsistence diversification. The general hypothesis is that societies with high climate unpredictability and resource stress would exhibit more subsistence diversity than societies in more stable climates. The authors examined four environmental and resource stress variables while controlling for temperature variance, subsistence activity, and phylogeny. Support was found for 2 of the 4 variables--chronic scarcity and environmental instability. In the discussion they suggest that more commonly observed events (e.g. annual hunger and climate unpredictability) may give people more motivation to change subsistence than rarer events (e.g. natural hazards and famine).

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  5. Valuing thinness or fatness in women: reevaluating the effect of resource scarcityEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2005 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study focuses on preferences for thinness or fatness in women cross-culturally. Results contradict previous studies and the hypothesis that preference for fatness in women is predicted by resource scarcity. Alternative explanations for valuation of fatness are explored, including climate and male dominance.

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  6. Drivers of geographical patterns of North American language diversityCuelho, Mario Tulio Pacheco - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2019 - 8 Hypotheses

    The authors examine multiple ecological variables as possible predictors of language diversity in North America using path analysis, mechanistic simulation modelling, and geographically weighted regression. They conclude that many of the variables do not predict language diversity, but rather are mediated by population density. The authors also find that the variables' ability to predict is not universal across the continent, but rather more regional.

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  7. Migration, external warfare, and matrilocal residenceDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 1974 - 3 Hypotheses

    Several theories on the development of matrilocal residence are tested. The main argument put forth predicts that matrilocal residence will develop in response to a need to break up fraternal interest groups that encourage internal war and instead encourage a pattern of external war that is more beneficial in populated regions with additional group migration.

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  8. An explanation for matrilocal residenceDivale, William Tulio - Being Female: Reproduction, Power, and Change, 1975 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study explores possible causes of matrilocal residence. Previous hypotheses are unsupported. Results show a significant relationship between matrilocality and recent migration.

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  9. Risk of resource failure and toolkit variation in small-scale farmers and herdersCollard, Mark - PloS one, 2012 - 1 Hypotheses

    Prior research by Oswalt (1973, 1976) and Torrence (1983, 2001) has suggested that risk of resource failure is a significant predictor of toolkit complexity and diversity among hunter-gatherers. In this paper, the same relationship is tested among small-scale herding and farming groups. However, no significant correlation is discovered between any measure of resource risk and any measure of toolkit complexity. The researchers suggest that this absence may be the result of greater reliance on non-technological diversification methods among farmers (i.e. spatial diversification, mixed farming, intercropping), or of other unaccounted-for sources of risk (i.e. intergroup raiding and warfare).

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  10. Material scaffolds in numbers and timeOvermann, Karenleigh A. - Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 2013 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper examines the relationship between the complexity of a society's material culture and its development of cognitive technologies for numeration and timekeeping. The researcher claims that the resulting positive correlation between these variables as support for a theory of material culture as 'scaffolding' for number concepts, providing tangible, shareable, manipulable forms for abstract numerical constructions.

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