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  1. War and social organization: from nomadic bands to modern statesFry, Douglas P. - Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    In this chapter of 'Beyond War,' Douglas critiques previous codes of warfare to make a distinction between feuding and warring. A test of warfare and level of social complexity among hunter-gatherers is conducted. Results indicate that complex hunter-gatherers make war while a majority of simple hunter-gatherers do not.

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  2. Beyond war: the human potential for peaceFry, Douglas P. - , 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This book investigates peaceful societies and the social and ecological conditions that discourage war. The author uses ethnographic examples, cross-cultural findings, primatology, and archaeology to examine war, social organization, human evolution, and conflict management.

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  3. Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of warFry, Douglas P. - Science, 2013 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the incidence of warfare in mobile forager band societies. Data analysis suggests that the majority of lethal aggression in such societies can be classified as homicide. Feuding is common and warfare a definite minority. The authors offer several reasons why warfare would be uncommon in such societies: residence, descent, subsistence strategy, and social order are all cited.

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  4. A Cross-Cultural Summary: Hunter-GatherersTextor, Robert B. - , 1967 - 9 Hypotheses

    Textor summarizes cross-cultural findings on societies where subsistence is primarily by 'food gathering' which includes hunting, fishing, and gathering.

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  5. Societies within peace systems avoid war and build positive intergroup relationshipsFry, Douglas P. - Humanities & Social Sciences Communications, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors explore cultural variables that they propose contribute to the maintenance of peace in non-warring societies. These variables are compared in 16 peaceful systems (as coded by the authors from anthropological and historical data) and in 30 warring societies taken from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). Findings associate more peaceful cultures with peace systems, and non-peaceful cultures with warring societies.

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  6. Natural selection in cultural evolution: warfare versus peaceful diffusionNaroll, Raoul - American Ethnologist, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    Drawing from Social Darwinism theories, this article posits warfare (specifically, military success) as a selective mechanism in the evolution of culture. The hypothesis was not supported.

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  7. Myths about hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Ethnology, 1978 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article challenges common assumptions about hunter-gatherers and demonstrates that previous ideas about residence, division of labor and warfare are not supported by the cross-cultural data.

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  8. Internal war: a cross-cultural studyOtterbein, Keith F. - American Anthropologist, 1968 - 9 Hypotheses

    This study examines how social structure, political organization, and intersocietal relations may affect the incidence of internal warfare (between culturally similar political communities). Results show that in uncentralized political systems, fraternal interest groups and unauthorized raiding parties may increase the incidence of internal war.

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  9. An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth: a cross-cultural study of feudingOtterbein, Keith F. - American Anthropologist, 1965 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study investigates the presence of feuding, arguing that a solely evolutionary or functional approach misses important inter-societal factors. Results indicate that while fraternal interest groups are associated with feuding, the presence of war and level of political integration also increase the likelihood of feuding.

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  10. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the PacificCurrie, Thomas E. - Nature, 2010 - 6 Hypotheses

    A central issue in anthropology is the process through which political organization (sometimes referred to as cultural complexity) evolves: competing models typically argue for either incremental increases in complexity or larger, non-sequential increases in complexity. Here, the authors evaluate six different models of political evolution, utilizing a phylogenetic approach to analyze the evolution of 84 Austronesian-speaking societies.

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