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  1. Pathogens, personality, and culture: disease prevalence predicts worldwide variability in sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness to experience.Schaller, Mark - Journal of personality and social psychology, 2008 - 3 Hypotheses

    The authors test the relationship between disease prevalence and three different personality traits, with the expectation that pathogen load will be negatively associated with degree of sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness to experience. This prediction is supported by all three tests, which they theorize is an example of cultural behaviors adapting to reduce vulnerability to environmental risks.

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  2. Sexually transmitted disease and gender roles: an index of cultural evolutionMackey, Wade C. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and several parameters of a nation’s demography, including income, mortality, labor, fertility, and homicide rates. Associations were supported by statistical tests. Regional differences are considered; Europe and the Muslim area had lower level of women’s HIV/AIDS infection. Four cultural adaptations to combat STDs are discussed.

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  3. Sex differences in the anatomical locations of human body scarification and tattooing as a function of pathogen prevalenceSingh, Devendra - Evolution and Human Behavior, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between body scarification and pathogen prevalence. Authors hypothesize that risk of serious pathogens will be related to scarification on areas of the body that are associated with physical attractiveness and fertility. Results show that only female stomach scarification is significantly related to pathogen prevalence.

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  4. Factors affecting human fertility in nonindustrial societies: a cross-cultural studyNag, Moni - Yale University Publications in Anthropology, 1962 - 13 Hypotheses

    Focusing on 61 preindustrial societies that have information on fertility, the author asks what factors may explain variation in fertility, what devices are used to control fertility, and whether differences in fertility appear to be in line with the societies' environments.

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  5. Sex, power, and resources: ecological and social correlates of sex differencesLow, Bobbi S. - International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 1990 - 15 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on ecological correlates of sexual division in the control of resources. The author tests several ecological theories put forth by others. Sex coalitions are examined in humans, and sexual dimorphism in resource acquisition and control is discussed.

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  6. The kiss of death: three tests of the relationship between disease threat and ritualized physical contact within traditional culturesMurray, Damian R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2016 - 3 Hypotheses

    In order to evaluate an adaptive justification for restriction of ritualized physical contact, the authors test association between three manifestations of physical interaction and prevalence of pathogens cross-culturally. Their expectation, supported by two of the three tested hypotheses, is that higher pathogen prevalence will lead to customs of restricted physical contact. Both cultural and biological evolution are suggested to be influential in selecting for physically intimate behaviors.

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  7. Effects of climate on certain cultural practicesWhiting, John W.M. - Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock, 1964 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study explores ecological reasons that might explain why boys are mostly circumcised in tropical regions, particularly in Africa and the insular Pacific. The author postulates a long causal chain linking: 1) tropical climate to the growing of root and fruit crops; 2) the need to keep babies on mother's milk for as long as possible where the adult diet is lacking in protein; 3) a long post-partum sex taboo as a way to space births; 4) the practice of polygyny (and associated mother-child sleeping) in the face of a long sex taboo; 5) patrilocal residence; and 6) male initiation ceremonies which are believed to result from the combination of mother-child sleeping, the long poast-partum sex taboo and patrilocal residence.

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  8. When one wife is enough: a cross-cultural study of the determinants of monogamyDow, Malcolm M. - Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article tests a myriad of factors that may have contributed to the adoption of monogamy in preindustrial societies. Results indicate that monogamy is not imposed by elites; rather, it is a strategy often chosen by women who can see no advantage to increasing the size or economic productivity of their households with more wives. The authors also assert that monogamy is generally adopted through cultural diffusion. Low pathogen stress, low risk of famine, and low endemic violence are also correlated with monogamy.

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  9. Child training and personality: a cross-cultural studyWhiting, John W.M. - , 1953 - 18 Hypotheses

    The authors put forward a theoretical model called "personality integration of culture." At the heart of the model is the idea that psychological processes may help explain why certain aspects of culture are related to other aspects. To test this model they focus on theories and therapies regarding illness and they use psychoanalytic ideas on positive and negative fixation to suggest how differences in child-rearing customs may account for different ideas about the causes of illness. The strongest results relate to socialization anxiety in a particular area of socialization (e.g., oral, dependency, and aggression) amd respective causes of illness. Results regarding negative fixation are generally supported, whereas positive fixation is not.

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  10. Varieties of sexual experience: an anthropological perspective on human sexualityFrayser, Suzanne G. - , 1985 - 8 Hypotheses

    This book examines social, cultural, biological and psychological aspects of human sexuality. Sex and reproduction are both discussed in depth. Empirical analysis is included throughout, and an integrated model of sexuality is discussed. Only a few selected hypotheses are entered here.

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