Found 939 Documents across 94 Pages (0.039 seconds)
  1. Valuing thinness or fatness in women: reevaluating the effect of resource scarcityEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2005 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study focuses on preferences for thinness or fatness in women cross-culturally. Results contradict previous studies and the hypothesis that preference for fatness in women is predicted by resource scarcity. Alternative explanations for valuation of fatness are explored, including climate and male dominance.

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  2. Permanent group membershipRoes, Frans L. - Biological Theory, 2014 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article reviews the theory that permanent animal groups have only one sex breed outside the group in order to balance genetic diversity and group relatedness. The author theorises that since males inherit valuable membership in patrilocal/lineal societies, they are expected to be more concerned about the probability of paternity than males in matrilocal/lineal societies. Moral rules, and specifically belief in moralizing gods, are expected to reflect this difference. In other words, moralizing gods are used to restrict the sexual activity of women.

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  3. Effects of male power and status on polygyny, extramarital sex, and parental investmentRaj, Vrishica - The Human Voyage: Undergraduate Research in Biological Anthropology, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    The present research inquires into the effects, if any, that male status and power have on extramarital sex, parental investment, and polygyny. Using sexual selection theory, the hypothesis is that males in higher positions of power and status are more likely to engage in extramarital sexual activities and be in polygynous relationships was supported. There was no support for an association between male extramarital sex and parental investment.

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  4. Kin Against Kin: Internal Co-selection and the Coherence of Kinship TypologiesPassmore, Sam - Biological Theory, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to evaluate the degree to which classical kinship models are able to capture variation in kinship terminology. Following a description of the classical typologies of kinship, the authors use statistical approaches and a new database, Kinbank, to assess the internal coherence of these typologies; they find that these typologies are not necessarily accurate predictors of kinship terms across cultures. In addition, this analysis showed that the use of one sort of kinship typology for one generation may only weakly indicate its use in an adjacent generation. The authors set out to try and identify new typologies using statistical modeling based on the single-generation kinship terms of 306 languages. They successfully identify 9 clusters of kinship terms for just one generation alone, indicating that kinship terminology is much more diverse than previously thought. They conclude kinship typology and variation in kinship terminology needs to be investigated more thoroughly.

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  5. Color term salienceHays, David G. - American Anthropologist, 1972 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper examines the Berlin-Kay color salience theory and offers four correlates of color salience: earliness of introduction, brevity of expression, frequency of use, and frequency of mention in ethnographic literature. All four correlations support the Berlin-Kay theory. The authors suggest that salience may be “an important general principle of cultural evolution” (1107).

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  6. Was the Duchess of Windsor right?: A cross-cultural review of the socioecology of ideals of female body shapeAnderson, Judith L. - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1992 - 7 Hypotheses

    Cultures vary widely in regards to beauty standards for female body fat: while industrialized nations typically prefer thinness in women, ethnographic reports indicate that plumpness is valued in many small-scale societies. Here the authors evaluate several hypotheses that relate variation in female body fat preference to variation in socioecology such as food storage, climate, male social dominance, valuation and restriction of women's work, and female stress during adolescence.

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  7. Why do human and non-human species conceal mating? The cooperation maintenance hypothesisBen Mocha, Yitzchak - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2020 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using cross-cultural comparative approaches among 249 cultures, this study explores the uniformity in human preference to concealing mating to others. The research questions guiding this study are: 1) Is the preference to conceal in legitimate mating a 'human universal'? and 2). What evolutionary pressures have originated this uniformity? The author proposes the ‘cooperation maintenance hypothesis’, which is built from three premises: sensory stimuli evoke sexual arousal in witnesses, humans are trying to exert control over their mating partner(s), and there is a need to foster within-group cooperation. This hypothesis suggests that concealing mating serves as a behavioral strategy to simultaneously retain control over mating partner(s) and foster cooperation with others. The author states that more analysis is needed to explain this behavior in other non-human species. The findings show support for the widespread pattern of concealment or attempts at concealment.

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  8. Basic color terms: their universality and evolutionBerlin, Brent - , 1969 - 1 Hypotheses

    The research presented in this book challenges the notion that languages develop color terms independently of other languages. Authors find a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms are drawn. Authors also find an apparent fixed sequence of evolutionary stages through which a language must pass as its color vocabulary increases. A postive correlation between cultural complexity and complexity of color vocabulary is observed.

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  9. How National Culture Influences the Speed of COVID-19 Spread: Three Cross-Cultural StudiesHuang, Xiaoyu - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 5 Hypotheses

    This research examines how national culture influences the speed of COVID-19 spread in different countries. Three studies were conducted, and five national cultural dimensions were found to be significantly related to the speed of COVID-19 spread in the initial stages of the pandemic. These dimensions are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, humane orientation, in-group collectivism, and cultural tightness. The research found that COVID-19 spreads faster in countries with small power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance, low humane orientation and high in-group collectivism, and slower in countries with high cultural tightness.

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  10. A cross-cultural investigation into the sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Sexual Dimorphism in Homo sapiens: A Question of Size, 1982 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article examines height and sexual dimorphism of stature from a sociobiological perspective. Diet, child rearing, and marriage practices are tested as possible factors contributing to height sexual dimorphism of stature. Results provide some support for a nutritional hypotheses, but sexual selection and parental investment are not statistically significant.

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