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  1. Small-scale farming in drylands: New models for resilient practices of millet and sorghum cultivationRuiz-Giralt, Abel - PLOS ONE, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    Finger millet, pearl millet, and sorghum are important drought-tolerant crops used as primary staple crops in drylands. Despite their long history, they have received less attention in recent years and their production has decreased. New models show that annual precipitation is not the only factor affecting their agriculture, but other variables like growing cycle duration, soil water-holding capacity, and soil nutrient availability also play a crucial role, as evidenced by ethnographic data. The traditional cultivation practices of these crops can be a sustainable response to the increasing aridity levels worldwide and can contribute to the resilience of dryland agriculture.

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  2. Ideology and the materialist model of general evolution: a cross-cultural test of subsystem relationshipsLeavitt, Gregory C. - Social Forces, 1986 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article takes a materialist approach to the evolution of ideology in human culture.This article examines the possible coevolution of sociocultural subsystems. The author emphasizes ideological variables and their relationship to technological and social-structural subsystems. Analysis supports a process of coevolution, which the author suggests refutes broad claims of cultural particularism.

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  3. Uniformity in Dress: A Worldwide Cross-Cultural ComparisonEmber, Carol R. - Human Nature, 2023 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study follows the theoretical construct of general cultural tightness and looseness (TL). Tightness is thought to be adaptive when facing socioecological threat, such as resource stress, since it involves a greater amount of cooperation. The study asks: "Why do some societies have relatively standardized or uniform clothing and adornment, whereas others have considerable variability across individuals?", which is connected to the broader question of why some societies show more within-group variation. The authors use a sample of 80 non-industrial societies from SCSS, to explore the relationship between general cultural tightness and standardization or synchrony in dress. The results support that tighter societies have more uniformity in dress and that resource stress is a predictor of synchrony. However, it is not supported that egalitarian societies have more synchrony, and that tightness is positively predicted by resource stress.

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  4. Is Mary Douglas's Grid/Group Analysis Useful for Cross-Cultural Research?Caulkins, D. Douglas - Cross-Cultural Research, 1999 - 1 Hypotheses

    In this article, the researcher aims to test the usefulness of grid/group theory, developed by anthropologist Mary Douglas, for cross-cultural research. The article utilizes principal component factor analysis on grid/group indicators to test if "grid" and "group" can be considered as sufficiently independent factors, and thus useful for quantitative cross-cultural research.

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  5. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the PacificCurrie, Thomas E. - Nature, 2010 - 6 Hypotheses

    Using phylogenetic modeling, the researchers test hypotheses for different sequences of political complexity among South-East Asian and Pacific Austronesian-speaking cultures. The research adds to an existing debate between sequential, incremental political evolution models and non-sequential models with larger increases in complexity. The results suggest support for a more sequential unilinear model.

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  6. Co-occurrence of ostensive communication and generalizable knowledge in forager storytelling: cross-cultural evidence of teaching in forager societiesSugiyama, Michelle S. - Human Nature, 2021 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examined the presence of ostensive-communicative behaviors in educational storytelling within foraging cultures. Ostensive communication includes prosody and gestures used to direct attention to something or someone. The author analyzed 14 behaviors of ostensive communication and tested whether they co-occur with the transmission of knowledge in storytelling. All 53 forager cultures examined demonstrated the use of 2 or more of those communicative behaviors in oral storytelling. This supports the author’s claim of ostensive-communicative behavior as a universal pedagogical tool in forager cultures.

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  7. RETRACTED: Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world historyWhitehouse, Harvey - Nature, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers tackle the moral gods hypothesis which proposes that moral gods enabled large-scale societies to evolve. They use 414 societies spanning 10,000 years in Seshat: Global History Databank and code 51 measures of social complexity and four measures of moral gods. The findings of the present study challenge the moral gods hypothesis. In the societies studied, complex societies appear to precede moral gods rather than the inverse of moral gods preceding complex societies.

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  8. Risk, uncertainty, and violence in eastern Africa: a regional comparisonEmber, Carol R. - Human Nature, 2012 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article examines resource problems and warfare in a sample of societies from eastern Africa. The frequency and predictability of resource problems are examined, as are two other dimensions of warfare: resource-taking and commission of atrocities. Differences between state and nonstate societies, as well as pacified and non-pacified societies, are also examined and shown to affect associations between resource and warfare variables.

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  9. Climate, Climate Change and the Global Diversity of Human HousesDunn, Robert R. - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study uses macroecological approaches to test the impact of climate, social environment, inter-group borrowing and cultural history on vernacular house architecture among 1140 societies. The authors suggest that certain features will be influenced: wall materials, ground plan, roof shape, and floor placement. They use mixed binary and multinominal regressions models to test these predictions. The results strongly support that climatic drivers, cultural continuity, and inter-group borrowing predict three out of the four features: wall materials, roof shape, and floor placement. Social drivers are a strong predictor of every feature tested.

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  10. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the PacificCurrie, Thomas E. - Nature, 2010 - 6 Hypotheses

    A central issue in anthropology is the process through which political organization (sometimes referred to as cultural complexity) evolves: competing models typically argue for either incremental increases in complexity or larger, non-sequential increases in complexity. Here, the authors evaluate six different models of political evolution, utilizing a phylogenetic approach to analyze the evolution of 84 Austronesian-speaking societies.

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