Found 1029 Documents across 103 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. Ethnic diversity and its environmental determinants: effects of climate, pathogens, and habitat diversityCashdan, Elizabeth - American Anthropologist, 2001 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article examines possible environmental predictors of ethnic diversity around the world. Results suggest that global ethnic diversity is associated with latitude, habitat diversity, pathogen stress, and climate.

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  2. Cultural trait transmission and missing data as sources of bias in cross-cultural survey research: explanations of polygyny re-examinedDow, Malcolm M. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2009 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study retests the work by Ember, Ember and Low (2007) on male mortality and pathogen stress as predictors of nonsororal polygyny. The authors argue that the work of Ember, Ember, and Low is biased because it does not include a variable for cultural trait transmission. Restesting the original Ember, Ember and Low data, including a variable for cultural trait transmission, authors find that male mortality and pathogen stress loose their significance and cultural trait transmission is the only significant predictor of nonsororal polygyny.

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  3. A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societiesJackson, Joshua Conrad - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2020 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds on previous cross-country and cross-state research into Tightness-Looseness (TL) theory, which proposes relationships between the incidence of ecological threat and cultural tightness, as well as tightness’ downstream effects on belief in a moralizing high god, inter-group contact and authoritarian leadership. To evaluate the generalizability of TL theory beyond complex cultures, the authors test these relationships among 86 nonindustrial societies from the ethnographic record. A structural equation model is presented of the results for nonindustrial societies; it is generally in accord with previous findings from more complex societies. Because the nonindustrial sample is more variable, they also look at relationships between societal complexity and kinship heterogeneity, aspects that vary in nonindustrial societies.

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  4. On the origins of cultural differences in conformity: Four tests of the pathogen prevalence hypothesisMurray, Damian R. - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2011 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors contribute to a growing body of theory which posits cultural differences as a result of variable pathogen prevalence by testing the relationship between pathogen richness and various measures of conformity in a cross-regional sample. After controlling for confounds such as life expectancy, GDP, population density, arable land area, and agricultural labor force, the authors suggest that conformity is emphasized to varying degrees in response to the increased vulnerability to pathogens generally associated with deviation from normative social conduct.

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  5. Combination of Genetic and Humanitarian (Cross-Cultural) Methods for the Identification of Human Genes Involved in the Process of Adaptation to Evolutionary New Environmental FactorsBorinskaya, S. A. - Russian Journal of Genetics, 2015 - 7 Hypotheses

    Researchers used population samples from the ALFRED database and the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), in conjunction with 68 populations from the Ethnographic Atlas, in an attempt to identify specific genes involved in human adaptation to environmental stimuli as a result of migration. Specifically, researchers looked at the allele frequencies for four different genes typically associated with varying subsistence forms. These four included the APOE apolipoprotein E gene (lipid transport and regulation of cholesterol), LCT lactase gene (enzyme that decomposes lactose), CCR5 chemokine receptor gene (deletion mutation that decreases immunodeficiency virus propagation), and the ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase gene (important enzyme for alcohol metabolism). The allele frequencies were then analyzed to distinguish any possible correlation to economic-culture types using a two-sided Spearman Test. Researchers also ran a similar test to analyze allele frequencies and pathogen load, however the majority of the findings were not statistically significant. The findings suggest that there is a definite relationship between the allele frequencies and type of economy of a population.

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  6. Pathogens and politics: further evidence that parasite prevalence predicts authoritarianismMurray, Damian R. - PLoS ONE, 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article employs cross-national and cross-cultural methods to investigate whether pathogen stress is a direct determinant of authoritarianism. The study controls on other factors such as famine, warfare, and malnutrition and evaluates alternative causal models.

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  7. Sex differences in the anatomical locations of human body scarification and tattooing as a function of pathogen prevalenceSingh, Devendra - Evolution and Human Behavior, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between body scarification and pathogen prevalence. Authors hypothesize that risk of serious pathogens will be related to scarification on areas of the body that are associated with physical attractiveness and fertility. Results show that only female stomach scarification is significantly related to pathogen prevalence.

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  8. Human responses to environmental extremeness and uncertainty: a cross-cultural perspectiveLow, Bobbi S. - Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, 1988 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on the effect of environmental extremes and unpredictability on human behavior and reproductive strategies. Significant correlations were found between environmental extremes and unpredictability and several variables, including mobility, subsistence mode, and degree of polygyny.

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  9. Explaining marriage patterns in a globally representative sample through socio-ecology and population history: A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using a new supertreeMinocher, Riana - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2019 - 23 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine marriage patterns of 186 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). The eleven predictor variables are pathogen stress, arranged female marriages, population density, father roles during infancy, temperature, social stratification, wealth inequality, internal warfare, assault frequency, female agricultural contribution, and sex ratio. The two outcome variables measuring polygyny are cultural rules constraining polygyny and the percentage of married men who are polygynous. Controlling on phylogeny using a global supertree of the languages, analysis of marriage patterns reveals that assault frequency and pathogen stress are the strongest predictors of polygyny. These findings offer additional support for the theories of harem-defense polygyny and male genetic quality.

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  10. Socio-cultural values are risk factors for COVID-19-related mortalityEndress, Ansgar D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper proposes that the socio-cultural values of countries may be associated with increased mortality due to COVID-19. Using results from the World Values survey, the author assessed which values had the strongest association with a change in COVID-19 mortality in datasets consisting of all countries, upper-middle and high income economies, upper-middle income economies, high income economies, and advanced economies. The author also sought to determine whether the WVS values that were associated with COVID-19 mortality were also associated with general life expectancy. The results showed that COVID-19 mortality was increased in countries that placed a higher value on freedom of speech, political participation, religion, technocracy, post-materialism, social tolerance, law and order, and acceptance of authority. On the other hand, mortality was decreased in countries with high trust in major companies and institutions and that endorsed maintenance of order as a goal for a country. The author also found that values related to COVID-19 mortality did not predict general health outcomes, and that some values that predicted increased COVID-19 mortality actually predicted decreased mortality from other outcomes.

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