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  1. Risk, uncertainty, and violence in eastern Africa: a regional comparisonEmber, Carol R. - Human Nature, 2012 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article examines resource problems and warfare in a sample of societies from eastern Africa. The frequency and predictability of resource problems are examined, as are two other dimensions of warfare: resource-taking and commission of atrocities. Differences between state and nonstate societies, as well as pacified and non-pacified societies, are also examined and shown to affect associations between resource and warfare variables.

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  2. Internal and external conflict and violence: cross-cultural evidence and a new analysisRoss, Marc Howard - Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1985 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article suggests a general theory of conflict and violence that may help explain the conditions under which internal conflict co-occur or are differentiated.

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  3. Warfare, atrocities, and political participation: eastern AfricaEmber, Carol R. - Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present study attempts to replicate the Ember, Ember, and Russett (1992) worldwide finding that fighting rarely occurs between democracies in a sample of eastern African societies. Following the earlier study, the authors considered internal warfare to be an analog of international warfare and measures of political participation analogous to democracy. The researchers also explore if there is an association between political participation and committing atrocities. Contrary to past findings, internal warfare was not predicted by the same set of variables as the 1992 study, but there is an inverse relationship between committing atrocities and political participation. However, when additional variables were added, internal warfare was significantly predicted by less political participation.

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  4. Marrying kin in small‐scale societiesWalker, Robert S. - American Journal of Human Biology, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors examine degree of intensiveness (kin-relatedness) among foraging and agropastoralist societies, predicting that hunter-gatherers will pursue more extensive kinship networks in order to maximize residential options in the case of unpredictability or uneven geographic distribution of food resources. Support is found for the hypothesis, and it is suggested that while extensive fission-fusion dynamics are beneficial in foraging systems, the increase in cooperation in large-scale agricultural settlements is aided by norms which encourage kin marriage and relatedness.

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  5. Political and demographic-ecological determinants of institutionalised human sacrificeWinkelman, Michael James - Anthropological Forum: A Journal of Social Anthropology and Comparative Sociology, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The author builds upon previous research (Winkelman 1998) to further elucidate the cross-cultural predictors of institutionalized human sacrifice. The author considers a range of ecological factors and political variables, particularly geopolitical dynamics and intra- and inter-group relations. Other factors were explored, including social complexity and social structures. The author identifies the lack of an effective superordinate political authority as a main determinant in similar behaviors contemporarily (e.g. suicide bombers, beheadings, public brutality in civil war).

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  6. Reducing post-disaster conflict: a cross cultural test of four hypotheses using archaeological dataPeregrine, Peter N. - Environmental Hazards, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article uses pre-defined criteria to sample 22 archaeological climate-related disasters from 9 distinct regions from eHRAF Archaeology. It quantitatively tests four hypotheses regarding change in conflict following climate-related disasters using multiple regression analyses and backwards stepwise regression. Findings demonstrate association between political strategy/authority decision making and degree of post climate disaster conflict.

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  7. Sex, power, and resources: ecological and social correlates of sex differencesLow, Bobbi S. - International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 1990 - 15 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on ecological correlates of sexual division in the control of resources. The author tests several ecological theories put forth by others. Sex coalitions are examined in humans, and sexual dimorphism in resource acquisition and control is discussed.

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  8. Does Art Bring Us Together? An Empirical Approach to the Evolutionary Aesthetics of Ellen DissanayakeFullerton, Brady - Biological Theory, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    In this study, the author empirically tests a formulation of Ellen Dissanayake's evolutionary theory of art, which argues that art evolved to promote group cohesion. The hypotheses derived from this theory and tested in this study specifically focus on ritual art and its relationships to various proxies for group cohesion such as community conflict and internal warfare. Results show that the presence of ritual art is significantly higher where certain measures of group cohesion are also higher (including lower internal warfare, lower conflict between communities of the same society, and lower frequency of violent conflict between groups within local communities).

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  9. Violence in the ethnographic record: results of cross-cultural research on war and aggressionEmber, Carol R. - Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past, 1997 - 7 Hypotheses

    This paper reviews the results of the author's cross-cultural studies of war and aggression and their implications for prehistory.

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  10. Annual rituals of conflictDirks, Robert - American Anthropologist, 1988 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article explores the factors that predict rituals of conflict. Hypotheses are derived from Gluckman's analysis of Southeast African rituals of rebellion and are tested against a cross-cultural sample.

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