Found 964 Documents across 97 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. Owls, Climates, and ExpertsMunroe, Robert L. - Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2018 - 5 Hypotheses

    The present study explores the cognitive and affective attitudes towards owls in cold-climate and warm-climate societies. In addition, a few hypotheses were tested. Specifically, the research question asks which societies would have greater owl ethnozoological knowledge, functional usage, conception of owls in positive magico-religious terms, and positive supernaturalistic interpretations of owls' behaviors and characteristics. The results offer support for the initial predictions with the exception that cold-climate societies do not have more positive magico-religious conceptions of owls than warm-climate societies.

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  2. Sociobiology: Another viewMunroe, Robert L. - Reviews in Anthropology, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article suggests that Wilson's definition of sociobiology, which incorporates underlying principles of animal social behavior, can be applied to human bahvior. Specifically, Wilson's assertion that the major ecological conditions associated with monogamy in animal societies, is tested on human societies.

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  3. Response to ember and ember's "climate, econiche, and sexuality: influences on sonority in language"Munroe, Robert L. - American Anthropologist, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    Munroe and Fought attempt to add new perspective to Ember and Ember's (2007) assertion that certain environmental features help to predict mean sonority levels in speech. This article discusses the other possible elements such as word length that might raise the level of communicative efficiency.

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  4. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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  5. The origins of the economy: a comparative study of distribution in primitive and peasant economiesPryor, Frederic L. - , 1977 - 39 Hypotheses

    Considerable disagreement exists in regard to the origin and distribution of economic phenomena such as money, slavery, markets, exchange, and imbalanced transfers. Here the author utilizes a worldwide cross-cultural sample of 60 pre-industrial "societies" to empirically test many economic hypotheses, with a focus on distributional mechanisms and institutions.

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  6. The Fish is the Friend of Matriliny: Reef density predicts matrilineal inheritance across the world and its persistence in MelanesiaBenYishay, Ariel - Allied Social Science Associations Annual Meeting, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    In order to evaluate previous claims of association between reliance on fishing and matrilineal inheritance practices, the researchers test the association between matriliny and reef density within a 10 km radius among the 186 societies of the Standard Cross Cultural Sample (SCCS). A positive correlation between these variables is complemented by a supplementary analysis of 56 villages in the Solomon Islands, intended to control for phylogenetic and demographic impacts on incidence of matriliny. The authors conclude that ecological factors such as reef density can and do have a direct effect on inheritance rules, with potential secondary effects on welfare and economic development.

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  7. Matrilineal descent in cross-cultural perspectiveAberle, David F. - Matrilineal Kinship, 1961 - 15 Hypotheses

    This chapter explores and tests some propositions about matrilineal societies. Supplementary to that discussion, the author also explores the problems of method associated with the use of coded data on large samples of cultures.

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  8. Human responses to environmental extremeness and uncertainty: a cross-cultural perspectiveLow, Bobbi S. - Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, 1988 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on the effect of environmental extremes and unpredictability on human behavior and reproductive strategies. Significant correlations were found between environmental extremes and unpredictability and several variables, including mobility, subsistence mode, and degree of polygyny.

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  9. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Hunter-Gatherer Social LearningGarfield, Zachary H. - Social Learning and Innovation in Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers, 2016 - 10 Hypotheses

    Social scientists are equivocal as to the importance of teaching (as contrasted with other forms of learning) in traditional societies. While many cultural anthropologists have downplayed the importance of teaching, cognitive psychologists often argue that teaching is a salient human universal. Here the authors investigate cultural transmission among 23 hunter-gatherer populations to explore the relative importance of teaching among foragers.

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  10. A cross-cultural investigation into the sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Sexual Dimorphism in Homo sapiens: A Question of Size, 1982 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article examines height and sexual dimorphism of stature from a sociobiological perspective. Diet, child rearing, and marriage practices are tested as possible factors contributing to height sexual dimorphism of stature. Results provide some support for a nutritional hypotheses, but sexual selection and parental investment are not statistically significant.

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