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  1. The kiss of death: three tests of the relationship between disease threat and ritualized physical contact within traditional culturesMurray, Damian R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2016 - 3 Hypotheses

    In order to evaluate an adaptive justification for restriction of ritualized physical contact, the authors test association between three manifestations of physical interaction and prevalence of pathogens cross-culturally. Their expectation, supported by two of the three tested hypotheses, is that higher pathogen prevalence will lead to customs of restricted physical contact. Both cultural and biological evolution are suggested to be influential in selecting for physically intimate behaviors.

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  2. Mortuary practices: their study and their potentialBinford, Lewis R. - Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices, 1971 - 1 Hypotheses

    A literature review of burial customs and their related assumptions and data orientations is presented. A cross-cultural study suggests there are associations between measures of mortuary ritual variety and societal structural complexity.

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  3. Grief and mourning in cross-cultural perspectiveRosenblatt, Paul C. - , 1976 - 12 Hypotheses

    This book investigates individual and group responses to death and the problems that death can create in a society. Several hypotheses regarding grief and mourning, as well as their variation with other societal variables, are supported with cross-cultural tests.

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  4. The dead may kill you: Do ancestor spirit beliefs promote cooperation in traditional small-scale societiesWhite, Claire - The Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1 - 3 Hypotheses

    Using 57 cultures from the Human Relations Area Files database, this paper examines the function and effectiveness of the belief of punitive ancestors in small-scale societies. The authors found that belief in dangerous ancestral entities is widespread and common and that harm is preventable through ritualized mortuary practices. The authors concluded that the fear of ancestral spirits did not promote social cooperation or inhibit self-interest behavior, contrary to the supernatural punishment hypothesis.

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  5. A cross-cultural study of reincarnation ideologies and their social correlatesMatlock, James Graham - , 1993 - 33 Hypotheses

    This dissertation discusses the divided theoretical approach to how reincarnation, animism, spirits, and general religious beliefs occur within societies cross-culturally. Matlock offers evidence to support Tyler, contradicting the generally accepted Durkheimian approach, arguing that the belief about souls and spirits may originate in dreams and other empirical experiences, in turn informing and shaping social organization. Durkheim argued the opposite, claiming that religious beliefs reflect social organization such as the clan and kinship. The author states 33 quantitative hypotheses to be tested using 30 of the first 60 sample societies available in the HRAF Probability Sample.

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  6. Indices of sociocultural development and cultural accumulation: an exponential cultural growth law and a "cultural surgency" factorBowden, Edgar - American Anthropologist, 1969 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article investigates a broad hypothesis that cultural traits diversify with sociocultural development. Results suggest that sociocultual development is associated with certain aspects of aesthetic and ritual culture, and that cultural elaboration may be correlated with some sexual norms and tendency toward cannibalism, human sacrifice, and slavery.

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  7. Social hierarchy and burial treatments: a comparative assessmentKamp, Kathryn A. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1998 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between existence of status hierarchies and the level of expense on burials. The aim is to assess the archaeological assumption that more expenditure on burials reflects elite statuses in society. Author concludes that competition is a more direct predictor of burial type than status hierarchy. Implications for archaeology are discussed.

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  8. Effects of Evolution, Ecology, and Economy on Human Diet: Insights from Hunter-Gatherers and Other Small-Scale SocietiesPontzer, Herman - Annual Review of Nutrition, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study, primarily a review on the evolution of the human diet, also includes a small study on the distribution of meat-eating and its relationship with climate and cultural factors, namely subsistence type. The authors find that societies with subsistence strategies that prioritize fishing, hunting, or pastoralism also tend to consume more animal products, whereas those that focus on agriculture have more plant-based diets. The authors argue that these small-scale societies have a healthier approach to diet than industrialized societies regardless of their subsistence type or meat consumption.

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  9. Family and land in peasant ritualMichaelson, Evalyn Jacobson - American Ethnologist, 1976 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article investigates the relationship between religious practices and the importance of land and family in peasant communities. Results suggest that religious observances are reflective of the dominant concerns of peasant life, such as land inheritance.

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  10. A cross-cultural method for predicting nonmaterial traits in archeologyMcNett, Charles W., Jr. - Behavior Science Notes, 1970 - 2 Hypotheses

    "This paper presents an exploratory attempt to solve the problem of how to infer traits for which no direct material evidence remains." The author suggests that the archeologically defined community pattern can predict several sociocultural traits. Results support this hypothesis.

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