Found 10 Documents across 1 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishmentHenrich, Joseph - Science, 2010 - 2 Hypotheses

    In order to explore the evolution of mutually beneficial transactions in large societies, this experimental study gathered data on the way people in societies of different subsistence types played games simulating interactions with anonymous others. The degree of fairness displayed by different players was correlated with measures of large-scale institutions, such as a market or world religion, that were present in a player’s society. Results suggest that “modern prosociality is not solely the product of an innate psychology, but also reflects norms and institutions that have emerged over the course of human history” (1480).

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  2. Costly punishment across human societiesHenrich, Joseph - Science, 2006 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study examines costly punishment behavior across cultures. Authors conducted economic games in a variety of societies and found that costly punishment behavior occurs to varied degrees across cultures. Results also suggest that altruistic behavior is associated with costly punishment behavior.

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  3. "Economic man" in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societiesHenrich, Joseph - Behavior and Brain Sciences, 2005 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article presents the results of economic behavior experiments conducted on members of 15 small scale societies. Although three different economic experiments were conducted, findings focus on the results of the "Ultimatum Game." The authors found that no society adhered to behavior predicted by the "selfishness axiom" which suggests that individuals will behave in a way that maximizes their own gain. Authors also discuss possible predictors of behavioral variation within and between groups.

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  4. The puzzle of monogamous marriageHenrich, Joseph - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2012 - 3 Hypotheses

    Observing that rates of polygynous marriage tend to increase with wealth difference, the authors of this paper attempt to understand why monogamous marriage has flourished in Europe and other parts of the world even as wealth differences have expanded. The authors theorize that monogamous marriage promotes the success of the groups that employ the practice by suppressing intra-group competition and that this is what has happened in Europe. Subsequently, the authors test hypotheses that are implicated in this theory.

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  5. The Church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variationSchulz, Jonathan F. - Science, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article draws from anthropology, psychology, and history to gain insight into the causes of large-scale psychological variation among humans. The authors of this study are mainly concerned with the way that weak kinship structures induced by policies of the Western Church in Europe may have resulted in the modern "WEIRD" (an acronym for "Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic") psychological profiles in that same region. By correlating the amount of contact with the Western Church, rates of cross-cousin marriage (as an element of kin tightness), and degrees of individualism (as an element of WEIRD psychology), the authors are able to find support for this theory.

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  6. The cultural evolution of prosocial religionsNonrenzayan, Ara - Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2016 - 0 Hypotheses

    Researchers review the literature on the development and spread of prosocial religions and their relations to cooperative behavior, solidarity, societal size, and cultural evolution. They theorize that prosocial religions have been co-beneficially related to the development of successful large-scale cooperative societies, and the reproduction of cultural values.

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  7. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human socialityPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Nature, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    Does belief in moralizing and punitive gods promote sociality between coreligionists who are otherwise strangers? A recent dataset of behavioral economic experiment results and demographic and religious data among eight disparate populations allows the researchers to test their hypothesis of a positive association between deity's perceived interest in human morality and favorability of treatment of outsiders who share a religion. Their findings mostly support this hypothesis, which they suggest lends credibility to a theory in which religion encourages cooperation between large groups of people, and is thus a successful product of cultural evolution.

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  8. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross cultural examinationPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - PLos ONE, 2018 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article is a quantitative analysis of 592 participants from 8 societies. The study examines a number of theories about what predicts moralistic religions, including life history theory. Findings suggest that there is no evident relationship between these life history predictions and the religious beliefs regarding moralism.

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  9. The cognitive and cultural foundations of moral behaviorPisor, Anne C. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    In this two-part study, researchers first collect data from 600 people from 8 different societies in an effort to examine the character of morality cross-culturally. In the second part, participants play a game to detect honesty and responses are related to conception of morality and religious beliefs. Researchers posit that there is a cooperative nature to conception of morality and that moral culture is related to impact upon one's social life, but that this conceptualization of morality only weakly predicts cooperative behavio. The religious beliefs are stronger predictors.

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  10. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societiesMarlowe, Frank W. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2008 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between population size (and complexity) and the level of third-party punishment in economic games. Results demonstrate that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

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