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  1. RETRACTED: Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world historyWhitehouse, Harvey - Nature, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers tackle the moral gods hypothesis which proposes that moral gods enabled large-scale societies to evolve. They use 414 societies spanning 10,000 years in Seshat: Global History Databank and code 51 measures of social complexity and four measures of moral gods. The findings of the present study challenge the moral gods hypothesis. In the societies studied, complex societies appear to precede moral gods rather than the inverse of moral gods preceding complex societies.

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  2. The cultural morphospace of ritual form: examining modes of religiosity cross-culturallyAtkinson, Quentin D. - Evolution and Human behavior, 2011 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article examines the frequency and emotional arousal of ritual. Cross-cultural tests support the existence of two modes of religiosity: doctrinal, with high frequency and low emotionality of ritual, and imagistic, with low frequency and high emotionality of ritual. Both euphoric and dysphoric arousal are considered. Associations between these two modes of religiosity and other features of culture (such as group size and the use of agriculture) are examined.

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  3. Is It Good to Cooperate? Testing the Theory of Morality-as-Cooperation in 60 SocietiesCurry, Oliver Scott - Current Anthropology, 2019 - 8 Hypotheses

    The present study examines 60 societies from the Probability Sample Files to see if there is a cross-cultural moral valence of seven cooperative behaviors. These behaviors include: being brave, deferring to superiors, dividing disputed resources, helping kin, helping your group, reciprocating, and respecting prior possessions. The results offer support for the theory of morality-as-cooperation that these seven behaviors tend to be widely held morals across cultures.

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  4. Explaining the rise of moralizing religions: a test of competing hypotheses using the Seshat DatabankTurchin, Peter - Religion, Brain & Behavior, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    How did moralizing religions rise, and what have they caused? The authors test the Big Gods theory, which suggests moralizing religions as a predictor of large-scale complex societies. In addition, they propose their hypothesis, which indicates that warfare, animal husbandry, and agricultural productivity have a role in producing moralizing religions. The results show no significant support for the Big Gods hypothesis. However, they support intergroup warfare, particularly military technologies and cavalry, as an important predictor of social complexity and moralizing religions. In addition, pastoralism has a moderate effect as a predictor for the rise of moralizing religions.

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  5. Quantitative historical analysis uncovers a single dimension of complexity that structures global variation in human social organizationTurchin, Peter - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017 - 1 Hypotheses

    Using the compiled database "Seshat: Global History Databank," researchers sampled 30 societies from 10 distinct regions of the world, testing 51 variables that were condensed into 9 "complex characteristic" variables. Researchers tested for correlates in how societies evolve structurally. Utilizing principal component analysis it was demonstrated that the complex characteristic variables were strongly associated, leading to theorization of structural and social evolution predictability.

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