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  1. Reproduction, ritual, and powerZelman, Elizabeth Crouch - American Ethnologist, 1977 - 1 Hypotheses

    This paper investigates ritual related to the female reproductive cycle. The author examines two types of ritual female pollution-avoidance ritual. meant to differentiate sex roles in a society, and male ritual (including couvade) associated with the female reproductive cycle, meant to minimize sex differentiation. Empirical analysis reveals several societal characteristics associated with each of these two types of ritual, suggesting that ritual can be used to encourage sex role rigidity or flexibility.

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  2. Women's rights and women's rites: a cross-cultural study of womanpowerZelman, Elizabeth Crouch - , 1974 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper examines ritual surrounding the female reproductive cycle and its relationship with female power. Data support two patterns: female pollution ritual tends to take place in relatively complex societies with low female contribution to subsistence, low female status, unilineal kinship and extended families; male productive ritual, on the other hand, tends to take place in societies with higher female contribution to subsistence, higher female status, cognatic kinship and small families.

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