Found 118 Documents across 12 Pages (0.041 seconds)
  1. Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to explain the forager population paradoxGurven, Michael D. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2019 - 5 Hypotheses

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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  2. Longevity Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural ExaminationGurven, Michael - Population and Development Review, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article seeks to reevaluate the widespread assumption that hunter-gatherers lack the longevity that people in the modern, industrialized world enjoy. Through modeling life expectancy, mortality, and other demographic trends among extant hunter-gatherer, gatherer-horticulturalists, and horticulturalists societies they are able to challenge this belief. The authors conclude that longevity is a "novel feature of Homo sapiens" and that seven decades seems to be the natural lifespan of a human.

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  3. Technological organization and settlement mobility: an ethnographic examinationShott, Michael - Journal of Anthropological Research, 1986 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests the relationship between mobility and technology among foragers, with the intent of applying findings to the archaeological record. In data analysis, mobility frequency is differentiated from mobility magnitude, and technological diversity is differentiated from technological complexity. Results suggest that mobility frequency is negatively associated with technological diversity while mobility magnitude is negatively associated with technological complexity.

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  4. Population aggregation and the Anasazi social landscape: A view from the four cornersAdler, Michael A. - The Ancient Southwestern Community: Models and Methods for the Study of Prehistoric Social Organization, 1990 - 1 Hypotheses

    Using both archaeological data from the Mesa Verde region and a Human Relations Area Files random sample of 25 worldwide societies, and another 10 from the American Southwest, the author looked to examine the relationship between changes in community size and settlements, agriculture intensification, and rules governing resource access. In particular the researcher wanted to examine the size of the group that controls the primary access to the main resource. After studying this global sample, the author takes an ethnographic look specifically at the Northern Anasazi in southewestern Colorado.

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  5. Ritual Facilities and Social Integration in Nonranked SocietiesAdler, Michael A. - The Architecture of Social Integration in Prehistoric Pueblos, 1989 - 2 Hypotheses

    The author sampled 28 nonhierarchical, sedentary (at least partially), and demographically documented societies to examine the presence, size, and use of socially integrative facilities. Examing the ethnographic record from the Human Relations Area Files, the author looked to test the assumption that kivas were intended for communal ritual activity.

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  6. Communities of Soil and Stone- An Archaeological Investigation of Population AggregationAdler, Michael A. - Chapters 4 & 5, 1990 - 6 Hypotheses

    The dissertation in its entirety is an archaeological investigation of population aggregation among the Mesa Verde region Anasazi A.D. 900-1300. Chapters four and five of Adlers larger work focus on cross-cultural perspectives to inform discussion around resource access and community strength. Multiple different hypotheses were tested with different data sets, but the HRAF database and Standard Cross Cultural Sample were used throughout.

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  7. Consanguinity as a Major Predictor of Levels of Democracy: A Study of 70 NationsWoodley, Michael A. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    While it is widely accepted that there are a multitude of variables that contribute to a society’s level of democracy, the authors of this study argue that the prevalence of consanguinity is one that is often overlooked. Using a sample of 70 nations, they tested the relationship between consanguinity (defined as marriage and subsequent mating between second cousins or closer relatives) and level of democracy (defined by both the Polity IV scale and the EIU Index) and found a significant negative relationship. Similarly, when controlled for a host of different variables in multiple regression analysis, the significant relationship between consanguinity and level of democracy held true.

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  8. It's Our Fault: A Global Comparison of Different Ways of Explaining Climate ChangeSchnegg, Michael - Human Ecology, 2021 - 0 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the authors survey a collection of 28 ethnographic case studies that are concerned with indigenous understandings of climate change. They argue that while more and more people across the globe are becoming concerned with the issue of climate change, these people are not merely accepting scientific narratives. On the contrary, these researchers map out various ways that scientific narratives interact with local ones. They categorize these interactions as hybridity, domination/resistance, and pluralism. The overwhelming majority of cases showed that hybridity between local and scientific narratives and ontologies were present.

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  9. Sex differences in the ease of socialization: an analysis of the efficiency of child training processes in preindustrial societiesWelch, Michael R. - The Journal of Social Psychology, 1981 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines differences in the ease of socialization for male and female children in preindustrial societies. Results support the hypothesis that the socialization of females is accomplished more easily than the socialization of males.

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  10. Environmental vs. technological effects on childhood socialization processes: a cross-cultural studyWelch, Michael R. - International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 1980 - 1 Hypotheses

    The author expands on the findings of Barry, Bacon, and Child (1959), hypothesizing that type of environment is an intervening variable in the relationship between subsistence type and child training. A multiple classification analysis is used.

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