Found 2532 Hypotheses across 254 Pages (0.006 seconds)
  1. Men in agricultural societies will be more likely to invest in their offspring (via inheritance) than men in hunter-gatherer societies (239).Gaulin, Steven J.C. - Sexual dimorphism in the human post-reproductive life-span: possible causes, 1980 - 2 Variables

    This study tests possible explanations for sexual dimorphism in human post-reproductive life-spans. The author focuses on explanations involving male paternal investment and finds that men in agricultural societies are more likely to invest in their offspring than men in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  2. Dowry will be associated with societies that are agricultural but have low female subsistance labor (1000).Gaulin, Steven J.C. - Dowry as female competition, 1990 - 3 Variables

    This study tests two models that predict the presence of dowry cross-culturally: the female competition model and the labor-value model. Results suggest that both models are predictive of dowry, however discriminant analysis finds the female competition model to be superior.

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  3. Adult violence mortality is higher among horticulturalists compared to hunter-gatherers (164).Hames, Raymond - Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers, 2019 - 2 Variables

    In this article Hames addresses the long-standing disagreements between evolutionary theories regarding human warfare (more specifically between Rousseauian and Hobbesian frameworks). This study posits that while most current and previous research focuses on the discrepancies between the frequency and intensity with which warfare takes place between hunter-gatherer and large-scale societies, the ability for societies to live in peace with their neighbors despite the possibility for warfare, is the most important evolutionary trait. Coexisting peacefully is what distinguishes human socially and politically from chimpanzees whereas warfare itself is a more primitive trait humans share with previous ancestors. Hames concludes that going forward, use of phylogenetic methods to control for common ancestry, and use of archaeological data would lead to new and more comprehensive findings. Although largely a review of principal warfare literature, Hames does present an original statistical finding on adult violence mortality which is reported below.

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  4. There will be an association between type of subsistence and sexual dimorphism of stature (27).Holden, Clare - Sexual dimorphism in stature and women's work: a phylogenetic cross-cultural..., 1999 - 2 Variables

    This article presents a phylogenetic approach to studying sexual dimorphism of stature. Results show a significant association between sexual division of labor and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  5. The type of food given to children during weaning was qualitatively different across subsistence types (p. 50).Sellen, Daniel W. - Relationships between subsistence and age at weaning in "preindustrial" soci..., 2001 - 2 Variables

    This study tests the weaning food availability hypothesis, that both the introduction of foods other than breastmilk and the cessation of breastfeeding will vary by society's subsistence type. This hypothesis has implications for demography, as accelerated weaning can lead to increases in both mothers' fertility (due to decreased birth intervals) and infant mortality (due to the presence of pathogens in new foods).

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  6. Hunter-gatherers will experience more famine than those with other modes of subsistence (1).Berbesque, J. Colette - Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists, 2014 - 2 Variables

    This study tests the common belief that hunter-gatherers suffer more famine than other subsistence types. Controlling for habitat quality, authors examine the relationship between famine and subsistence type and find that hunter-gatherers actually experience significantly less famine than other subsistence types.

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  7. Agriculturalist populations will have lower infant and child mortality rates than hunter-gatherer populations.Volk, Anthony A. - Infant and child death in the human environment of evolutionary adaptation, 2013 - 3 Variables

    High infant and child mortality rates are suggested to be one of the most enduring and important features of ancestral human environments, referred to as the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA). These rates contrast with the very low rates of infant and child mortality among many industrialized nations since the 19th and 20th centuries. The authors compare data from recent hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies, historical records, and non-human primates in attempt to quantitatively describe infant and child mortality rates during the EEA.

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  8. "Cassava will be more important where there are fewer food-getting strategies (less of a mix of subsistence strategies, wage labor, cash crops, government supplies, etc.); in turn food diversity will be positively associated with such cultural ecological variables as markets, access to markets, population density, and more elaborate technology" (p.101).Romanoff, Steven - Cassava production and processing in a cross-cultural sample of african soci..., 1992 - 7 Variables

    This exploratory study seeks to explain cassava production and processing in Africa by considering cultural, agronomic, and environmental data. After examining the descriptive results of the agricultural and social contexts of cassava use, the authors build upon Boserup's population density model (1965) to analyze their own hypothesized model of cassava's importance among the sampled societies.

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  9. Agricultural subsistence will be positively associated with inheritance to the wife's children; Hunter-gather subsistence will be positively associated with inheritance to individuals other than the wife's children (279)Gray, J. Patrick - Parental certainty, subsistence and inheritance revisited, 1981 - 3 Variables

    This article examines the results of a study (Gaulin 1980) on male parental certainty and subsistence type. Methodological errors are assessed and the hypotheses are retested.

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  10. The infant/child's age at the cessation of breastfeeding is lower in preindustrial populations with agricultural or pastoral subsistence type than in hunting and gathering socieities (p. 50).Sellen, Daniel W. - Relationships between subsistence and age at weaning in "preindustrial" soci..., 2001 - 2 Variables

    This study tests the weaning food availability hypothesis, that both the introduction of foods other than breastmilk and the cessation of breastfeeding will vary by society's subsistence type. This hypothesis has implications for demography, as accelerated weaning can lead to increases in both mothers' fertility (due to decreased birth intervals) and infant mortality (due to the presence of pathogens in new foods).

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