Found 2985 Hypotheses across 299 Pages (0.045 seconds)
  1. High lactose digestive capacity among adults evolved in populations that kept livestock (615).Holden, Clare - Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults, 1997 - 2 Variables

    The ability of adults to digest lactose is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin, a distribution thought to be a result of genetic adaptation to drinking milk from domestic livestock. Two additional hypotheses have been proposed to explain the distribution of high lactose digestion capacity: (1) supplemental calcium in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin D deficiency and (2) maintenance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly arid environments. However, these hypotheses are confounded by the shared ancestry of populations whose lactose digestion capability has been tested. Therefore, the authors test all three hypotheses using a phylogenetic comparative method for 62 cultures.

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  2. There is positive selection for high lactose digestion capacity among adults in populations living in drier environments (615).Holden, Clare - Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults, 1997 - 2 Variables

    The ability of adults to digest lactose is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin, a distribution thought to be a result of genetic adaptation to drinking milk from domestic livestock. Two additional hypotheses have been proposed to explain the distribution of high lactose digestion capacity: (1) supplemental calcium in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin D deficiency and (2) maintenance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly arid environments. However, these hypotheses are confounded by the shared ancestry of populations whose lactose digestion capability has been tested. Therefore, the authors test all three hypotheses using a phylogenetic comparative method for 62 cultures.

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  3. There is positive selection for high lactose digestion capacity among adults in populations living in high-latitude, low-sunshine environments (615).Holden, Clare - Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults, 1997 - 2 Variables

    The ability of adults to digest lactose is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin, a distribution thought to be a result of genetic adaptation to drinking milk from domestic livestock. Two additional hypotheses have been proposed to explain the distribution of high lactose digestion capacity: (1) supplemental calcium in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin D deficiency and (2) maintenance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly arid environments. However, these hypotheses are confounded by the shared ancestry of populations whose lactose digestion capability has been tested. Therefore, the authors test all three hypotheses using a phylogenetic comparative method for 62 cultures.

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  4. In past Bantu-speaking cultures, matriliny and cattle will have a relationshipHolden, Clare Janki - Spread of cattle led to the loss of matrilineal descent in Africa: a coevolu..., 2003 - 3 Variables

    Through phylogenetic comparison, Holden and Mace explore the relationship between descent and cattle among a sample of 68 Bantu/Bantoid-speaking populations in Africa. The authors posit that when matrilineal cultures adopt cattle, they become patrilineal. Possible theories are offered to explain trends and variation in the data.

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  5. The adoption of cattle will be associated with the loss of matrilinyHolden, Clare Janki - Spread of cattle led to the loss of matrilineal descent in Africa: a coevolu..., 2003 - 4 Variables

    Through phylogenetic comparison, Holden and Mace explore the relationship between descent and cattle among a sample of 68 Bantu/Bantoid-speaking populations in Africa. The authors posit that when matrilineal cultures adopt cattle, they become patrilineal. Possible theories are offered to explain trends and variation in the data.

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  6. There will be an association between type of subsistence and sexual dimorphism of stature (27).Holden, Clare - Sexual dimorphism in stature and women's work: a phylogenetic cross-cultural..., 1999 - 2 Variables

    This article presents a phylogenetic approach to studying sexual dimorphism of stature. Results show a significant association between sexual division of labor and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  7. Sexual dimorphism in stature will be greater in polygynous societies (27).Holden, Clare - Sexual dimorphism in stature and women's work: a phylogenetic cross-cultural..., 1999 - 2 Variables

    This article presents a phylogenetic approach to studying sexual dimorphism of stature. Results show a significant association between sexual division of labor and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  8. Sexual dimorphism in stature will be associated with variation in the sexual division of labor (27).Holden, Clare - Sexual dimorphism in stature and women's work: a phylogenetic cross-cultural..., 1999 - 2 Variables

    This article presents a phylogenetic approach to studying sexual dimorphism of stature. Results show a significant association between sexual division of labor and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  9. Among pastoralists, subsistence and economic specialists will be more mobile (22).Porčić, Marko - Nomadic pastoralism in the early bronze age of the central balkans: evaluati..., 2008 - 2 Variables

    This article presents a cross-cultural analysis of the characteristics of mobile pastoral groups to determine if similar groups were likely in prehistory in the central Balkans. The author reviews Johnson’s (2002) classification of pastoral adaptation modes and his analysis largely confirms her preliminary findings. He finds, however, that subsistence and economic specialists tend to have higher mobility, a variable in turn associated with high seasonal variability.

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  10. Genital mutilation/cutting is associated with subsistence type.Šaffa, Gabriel - Global phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and correlates of geni..., 2022 - 11 Variables

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of female and male genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C and MGM/C) practices, including their history and socio-ecological correlates, using a phylogenetic cross-cultural framework. It employed two global ethnographic samples, the Ethnographic Atlas (EA) and the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS), and two subsets of the phylogeny (supertree) of human populations based on genetic and linguistic data, to investigate the variables that may have led to the introduction of these practices, and to determine where and when they may have originated. The study suggests that MGM/C probably originated in polygynous societies with separate residence for co-wives, supporting a mate-guarding function, and that FGM/C likely originated subsequently and almost exclusively in societies already practicing MGM/C, where it may have become a signal of chastity. Both practices are believed to have originated multiple times, some as early as in the mid-Holocene (5,000–7,000 years ago). The study posits that GM/C co-evolves with and may help maintain fundamental social structures and that the high fitness costs of FGM/C are offset by social benefits, such as enhanced marriageability and social capital.

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