Found 2620 Hypotheses across 262 Pages (0.052 seconds)
  1. The relationship between rate of word replacement and usage frequency is stronger for kinship terms than it is for core vocabulary in Indo-European languages.Rácz, Péter - Usage frequency and lexical class determine the evolution of kinship terms i..., 2019 - 2 Variables

    Previous research has found that words are replaced faster in language vocabularies the less the word is used, whereas words that are used more frequently endure longer. Drawing from this theory, the authors of this article propose two questions: 1) Is the rate of replacement for Indo-European kinship terms correlated with their usage frequency? 2) How does this relationship differ between kinship terms and core vocabulary? Using phylogenetic comparative methods to analyze 10 kinship categories from 47 Indo-European languages, the authors find that more frequently used kinship terms tend to be replaced at a much slower rate than less frequently used words. Furthermore, this relationship between word replacement rate and usage frequency is stronger for kinship terms than it is for core vocabulary terms.

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  2. The rate of replacement for Indo-European kinship terms is correlated with their usage frequency. Rácz, Péter - Usage frequency and lexical class determine the evolution of kinship terms i..., 2019 - 2 Variables

    Previous research has found that words are replaced faster in language vocabularies the less the word is used, whereas words that are used more frequently endure longer. Drawing from this theory, the authors of this article propose two questions: 1) Is the rate of replacement for Indo-European kinship terms correlated with their usage frequency? 2) How does this relationship differ between kinship terms and core vocabulary? Using phylogenetic comparative methods to analyze 10 kinship categories from 47 Indo-European languages, the authors find that more frequently used kinship terms tend to be replaced at a much slower rate than less frequently used words. Furthermore, this relationship between word replacement rate and usage frequency is stronger for kinship terms than it is for core vocabulary terms.

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  3. Ma and Na sound classes will be used for the mother, while Pa and Ta sound classes will be used for the father (2, 4).Murdock, George Peter - Cross-language parallels in parental kin terms, 1959 - 2 Variables

    This article examines the universal tendency for languages, regardless of their historical relationships, to develop similar words for mother and father on the basis of nursery forms. Findings suggest that Ma, Na, Pa, and Ta are significantly more common sound classes denoting the mother or father.

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  4. Nasal consonants, non-nasal labial stops, and low vowels will the sounds most frequently used by young children to denote the mother and father (1).Murdock, George Peter - Cross-language parallels in parental kin terms, 1959 - 2 Variables

    This article examines the universal tendency for languages, regardless of their historical relationships, to develop similar words for mother and father on the basis of nursery forms. Findings suggest that Ma, Na, Pa, and Ta are significantly more common sound classes denoting the mother or father.

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  5. Languages with larger speaker populations had higher rates of gain of new words than did their smaller sister languages (2100).Bromham, Lindell - Rate of language evolution is affected by population size, 2012 - 2 Variables

    Population size is generally assumed to play a pivotal role in the evolution of languages and cultures, but the expected patterns and potential mechanisms of change are unsettled. Theoretical models are limited by this uncertainty because they require making prior assumptions about language evolution. Using a sample of 20 Polynesian languages, authors test the effect of population size on the gain, loss, and total change of basic vocabulary words.

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  6. Languages with a smaller number of speakers had higher rates of loss of lexemes from basic vocabulary than did their larger sister languages (2100).Bromham, Lindell - Rate of language evolution is affected by population size, 2012 - 2 Variables

    Population size is generally assumed to play a pivotal role in the evolution of languages and cultures, but the expected patterns and potential mechanisms of change are unsettled. Theoretical models are limited by this uncertainty because they require making prior assumptions about language evolution. Using a sample of 20 Polynesian languages, authors test the effect of population size on the gain, loss, and total change of basic vocabulary words.

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  7. Total rate of change (word gain plus word loss) is related to population size.Bromham, Lindell - Rate of language evolution is affected by population size, 2012 - 2 Variables

    Population size is generally assumed to play a pivotal role in the evolution of languages and cultures, but the expected patterns and potential mechanisms of change are unsettled. Theoretical models are limited by this uncertainty because they require making prior assumptions about language evolution. Using a sample of 20 Polynesian languages, authors test the effect of population size on the gain, loss, and total change of basic vocabulary words.

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  8. The salience of color categories in folk tales is positively associated with the evolutionary sequence proposed by Berlin and Kay (1969) (233).Bolton, Ralph - Color terms in folk tales: a cross-cultural study, 1979 - 2 Variables

    Using a sample derived from the available folk tale literature, researchers test whether the salience of color terms in folk tales follow the evolutionary sequence put forth by Berlin and Kay (1969). Results support the hypothesis.

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  9. Ambient humidity will be positively associated with vowel utilization.Everett, Caleb - Languages in Drier Climates Use Fewer Vowels, 2017 - 3 Variables

    This study sampled over 4,012 language varieties, comparing their version of 40 generally universal words, such as body parts, water, the sun, pronouns, and common behaviors or animals. These language variations were tested in their association to "specific humidity," the variable used to represent ambient humidity of a language location. Results suggest negative association between the dryness of climate and the utilization of vowels, consitent with the idea that dry air affects the behavior of the larynx.

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  10. Speech communities further from the equator will be positively associated with having six or more basic color terms (364)Ember, Melvin - Size of color lexicon: interaction of cultural and biological factors, 1978 - 2 Variables

    Different languages contain different numbers of basic colors. One interpretation is that more complex societies will have more basic color terms. Another interpretation is that peoples with less pigmented eyes will have more basic color terms. This paper suggests that both interpretations are necessary in order to predict the number of basic color terms.

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