Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology Vol/Iss. 52 (4) SAGE Publications Newbury Park, CA Published In Pages: 1-28
By Bosson, Jennifer K., Jurek, Pawel, Vandello, Joseph A., Kosakowska-Berezecka, Natasza, Olech, Michal, Besta, Tomasz, Bender, Michael, Hoorens, Vera, Becker, Maja, Sevincer, A. Timur, Best, Deborah L., Safdar, Saba, Wlodarczyk, Anna, Zawisza, Magdalena, Abuhamdeh, Sami, Agyemang, Collins Badu, Akbas, Gulcin, Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan, Ammirati, Soline, Anderson, Joel, Zukauskiene, Rita, et al.


This article is chiefly concerned with the cross-national validity of measures of precarious manhood beliefs (PMB) as well as correlations between those beliefs, other gender ideologies, and measures of development and gender equity. While much of the orientation of this paper is psychological, individual constructions of gender and the ideologies that inform them are culturally specific. Thus, this sort of research allows researchers and theorists an opportunity to glimpse an outline of what might be a deep structure to masculinity cross-culturally. By analyzing data collected through surveys of 34,023 undergraduates in 62 countries, the researchers were able to test for psychometric isomorphism between individuals and country-level data in order to validate their measures. Subsequently, the researchers were able to test correlations between PMB and hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), hostility towards men (HM), and benevolence towards men (BM). This situated the PMB construct within a larger literature on the nature of masculinity. Finally, the researchers tested PMB against the Human Development Index (HDI) and Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI). The researchers conclude that not only is their measure of precarious manhood beliefs valid but that this construct comports well with other theories of gender ideology cross-nationally.


The analyses conducted for this study were run using models and modeling as well as correlations. However, the authors did not supply any p-values for these tests. Instead, support was claimed. These claims are reflected below.


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
Unique sample of 62 countriesresearcher's ownthis sample included 33,417 respondents

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