The relationship between cultural tightness-looseness and COVID-19 cases and deaths: a global analysis

The Lancet Planetary Health Vol/Iss. 5(3) Elsevier Ltd. Published In Pages: e135-e144
By Gelfand, Michele J., Jackson, Joshua C., Pan, Xinyue, Nau, Dana, Pieper, Dylan, Denison, Emmy, Dagher, Munqith, Van Lange, Paul A. M., Chiu, Chi-Yue, Wang, Mo


This article examines the relationship between the tightness-looseness of a culture and the variation of COVID-19 cases and deaths through October 2020. With COVID-19 data retrieved from Our World in Data from 57 countries with tightness-looseness figures, the article found the cultures with high levels of tightness had fewer COVID-19 cases and deaths when compared to countries with high levels of looseness. Results suggest support of the evolutionary game theoretic model proposing that people in tight cultures may cooperate with more urgency when under collective threat than people in loose cultures.


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
Our World in DataOther researchersCOVID-19 data
World BankOther researchersGini Coefficients, economic development, population density, and government efficiency
UN Population DivisionOther researchersPercent migrants
US Central Intelligence AgencyOther researchersMedian age
Gelfand et. al (2011 & 2021)Researcher's ownTightness-looseness data

Documents and Hypotheses Filed By:danielle.russell