Irrigation and gender roles

Journal of Development Economics Vol/Iss. 163 Elsevier Published In Pages: 1-15
By Fredriksson, Per G. , Gupta, Satyendra Kumar


This paper suggests that ancestral irrigation is linked to lower levels of contemporary female labor force participation. The hypothesis is tested using cross-country data, as well as data from various surveys. The study finds evidence that the gender-based division of labor in pre-modern agriculture may be the mechanism behind this relationship, and that cultural transmission across generations, particularly through males, may play a role in perpetuating this pattern.


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
Standard Cross Cultural Sample (SCCS)Other researchersData on agriculture and land quality, gender roles, plough use, climate
Ethnographic Atlas (EA)Other researchersData on agriculture
World Values Survey (WVS)Other researchersEmployment data
European Social SurveyOther researchersData on gender roles, agriculture
Afrobarometer SurveyOther researchersEmployment data, some agricultural data
The Asian BarometerOther researchersEmployment status, some agricultural data
American Community Survey (ACS)Other researchersData on labor market outcomes, agriculture

Documents and Hypotheses Filed By:jacob.kalodner