Stresses of COVID-19 and Expectations for the Future Among Women: A Cross Cultural Analysis According to the Femininity/Masculinity Dimension

Cross-Cultural Research Vol/Iss. Online only Sage Journals Published In Pages: 1-25
By Vollman, Manja, Todorova, Irina, Salewski, Christel, Neter, Efrat


The study explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women's stressful experiences and future expectations, and whether it is associated with cultural femininity/masculinity. The study involved 1218 women from 15 countries, and the findings showed that women from masculine cultures more often expressed disorientation, while women from feminine cultures more often wrote about negative emotions. Additionally, women from masculine cultures had more future expectations regarding daily activities, while women from feminine cultures had more expectations regarding social activities, work and economic revival, and universal social issues. The pandemic seems to confront women in both types of culture with similar challenges. Overall, increased societal participation and responsibilities of women in feminine cultures were associated with negative affect during the pandemic, but they also propelled plentiful expectations for the future "after COVID-19".


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
This studyResearchers' ownData on 15 countries
Our World in Data, 2020Other researchersGovernment stringency
Hofstede, 2021Other researchersMasculinity index scores

Documents and Hypotheses Filed By:jacob.kalodner