Sex differences in moral judgements across 67 countries

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Vol/Iss. 287 Royal Society Published In Pages: 20201201
By Atari, Mohammad, Lai, Mark H., Dehghani, Morteza


Using frequentist and Bayesian multi-level models in a sample of two international samples, the authors test whether there are significant sex differences in moral judgments across a large-scale examination of countries. They compare men and women using the five components of the Moral Foundations Theory: 1) care, (2) fairness, (3) loyalty, (4) authority, and (5) purity. In addition, they study the differences when considering socioeconomic and gender-equality status. The results partially support the presence of significant sex differences. While care, fairness, and purity were consistently higher for women; loyalty and authority were highly variable. The study also shows that there are larger sex differences in moral judgments across more individualist, WEIRD, and gender-equal societies.


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
OtherResearcher's own11,969 participants from 19 countries who completed the MFQ in their native language. Data provided by individual researchers from local countries.
YourMorals.orgResearcher's own336,691 individuals from 67 countries, who completed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire.

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