Human milk immune factors, maternal nutritional status, and infant sex: The INSPIRE study

American Journal of Human Biology Vol/Iss. 35(11) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Published In Pages: e23943
By Caffé, Beatrice, Blackwell, Aaron, Fehrenkamp, Bethaney D., Williams, Janet E., Pace, Ryan M., Lackey, Kimberly A., Ruiz, Lorena, Rodríguez, Juan M., McGuire, Mark A., Foster, James A., Sellen, Daniel W., Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W., Kamundia, Egidioh W., Mbugua, Samwel, Moore, Sophie E., Prentice, Andrew M., Kvist, Linda J., Otoo, Gloria E., Pareja, Rossina G., Bode, Lars, Gebeyehu, Dubale, Gindola, Debela K., Boothman, Sarah, Flores, Katherine, McGuire, Michelle K., Meehan, Courtney, L.


The Trivers-Willard hypothesis posits that concentrations of human milk immune factors vary with maternal condition (maternal diet diversity and body mass index) and the sex of the infant. Using linear mixed-effects models to analyze 358 milk samples from 10 international sites, the authors find minimal support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis; only one immune factor, IgG, exhibited a significant relationship.


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
INSPIRE StudyResearchers' ownData collected on 410 breastfeeding women and their infants between May 2014 and April 2016.

Documents and Hypotheses Filed By:isanaraja