Modernization as changes in cultural complexity: new cross-cultural measurements

Cross-Cultural Research Vol/Iss. 35 Published In Pages: 127-151
By Divale, William Tulio, Seda, Albert


This article considers the consequences of modernization. Factor analysis is used to identify four stages of modernization: 1) changes in education, government, and trade; 2) changes in health, technology, and transportation; 3) changes in family, religion, and toilet; and 4) changes in behavior. The authors then consider five trends they expect to be associated with modernization and test whether they develop over the course of the four stages. Results indicate that these 5 trends—increased cultural complexity, female status, pacification, suicide, and social stress—are associated with only the first and fourth stages.

Documents and Hypotheses Filed By:Kate Cummings Amelia Piazza