Notes on technology and the moral order

The Advanced Studies Series Vol/Iss. n.a. Bobbs-Merrill Indianapolis Published In Pages: ??
By Gouldner, Alvin W., Peterson, Richard A.


Using empirical data and statistical methodology, Gouldner and Peterson aim to identify fundamental dimensions across societies, examine the relationships among these dimensions, and evaluate their importance. Data analysis is largely based on factor analysis, and the authors discuss how statistical methods fit into functional social theory.


Sample Used Coded Data Comment
OtherOther Researchers (Simmons, 1945; HRAF)

Hypotheses (7)

Findings: Factor L, "Lineality", is bipolar. Traits which load heavily and positively (oblimax rotation) are: patripotestal family authority, patrilineal inheritance, patrilineal descent, patrilineal succession, and subjection of women. Negative loadings are for matrilineal inheritance and descent (21)Supported
Findings: Factor SC, "Sex Dominance", is bipolar. It loads heavily and positively (oblimax rotation) for matrilocal residence, monogamy, and more moderately for communal houses. High negative loadings are shown for polygyny, patrilocal residence, legendary heroes, and more moderately for government by restricted council (22)Supported
Findings: Factor T, "Level of Technology", with its stress on pottery and grain for food is suggestive of neolithic technology. The two heaviest positive loadings (oblimax rotation) were noted above. Other heavy positive loadings are: mining and smelting, prevalence of war, basketry, money, weaving, herding, agriculture, domesticated animals other than herded. Highest negative loadings are: warm climate, legendary heroes, fishing, and patrilocal residence (25)Supported
Societies with a high level of technology should have a written language, a high level of trade, and hereditary castes and classes, and should correlate with the Hobhouse, Wheeler and Ginsberg classification of the stages of economic culture (28, 29, 30)Supported
Findings: Factor A, "Apollonianism or Norm-Sending", has high positive loadings (oblimax rotation) for: elaboration of ceremony and ritual, organized priesthood, authority vested in judges, power vested in chief, government by restricted council, and attractiveness of future life. Highest negative loadings are for marriage by capture and domesticated animals other than herded.Supported
"Insofar as Apollonianism involves a stress on cognitive modes of experience and a hopeful melioristic view of the world we should expect it to correlate positively with [Factor] T (Technology)" (36)Supported
The data are consistent with a hypothesis that, of all the factors (kinship, technology, Norm-Sending) technology is relatively the most important. (Varimax rotation shows technology extracts more variance than any other factor) (55)UNKNOWN

Documents and Hypotheses Filed By:mas emily.pitek