Found 606 Documents across 61 Pages (0.01 seconds)
  1. Pathogens, personality, and culture: disease prevalence predicts worldwide variability in sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness to experience.Schaller, Mark - Journal of personality and social psychology, 2008 - 3 Hypotheses

    The authors test the relationship between disease prevalence and three different personality traits, with the expectation that pathogen load will be negatively associated with degree of sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness to experience. This prediction is supported by all three tests, which they theorize is an example of cultural behaviors adapting to reduce vulnerability to environmental risks.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. On the origins of cultural differences in conformity: Four tests of the pathogen prevalence hypothesisMurray, Damian R. - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2011 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors contribute to a growing body of theory which posits cultural differences as a result of variable pathogen prevalence by testing the relationship between pathogen richness and various measures of conformity in a cross-regional sample. After controlling for confounds such as life expectancy, GDP, population density, arable land area, and agricultural labor force, the authors suggest that conformity is emphasized to varying degrees in response to the increased vulnerability to pathogens generally associated with deviation from normative social conduct.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. Dog-Human Coevolution: Cross-Cultural Analysis of Multiple HypothesesChambers, Jaime - Journal of Ethnobiology, 2021 - 16 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to understand dog-human coevolution by considering predictors of different aspects of dog-human relationships across cultures. In order to measure dog-human relationships, the researchers created three indexes: dogs' utility for humans (DUH), humans' utility for dogs (HUD), and the personhood of dogs (PD). Each of these indexes were tested against various pre-coded variables that were empirically and theoretically relevant to this subject.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. Pathogens and politics: further evidence that parasite prevalence predicts authoritarianismMurray, Damian R. - PLoS ONE, 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article employs cross-national and cross-cultural methods to investigate whether pathogen stress is a direct determinant of authoritarianism. The study controls on other factors such as famine, warfare, and malnutrition and evaluates alternative causal models.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Pathogen prevalence and human mate preferencesGangestad, Steven W. - Ethnology and Sociobiology, 1993 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study focuses on the relationship between pathogen prevalence and mate selection. Results show that increased pathogen prevalence is significantly associated with an increased importance in the physical attractiveness of potential mates.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societiesJackson, Joshua Conrad - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2020 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds on previous cross-country and cross-state research into Tightness-Looseness (TL) theory, which proposes relationships between the incidence of ecological threat and cultural tightness, as well as tightness’ downstream effects on belief in a moralizing high god, inter-group contact and authoritarian leadership. To evaluate the generalizability of TL theory beyond complex cultures, the authors test these relationships among 86 nonindustrial societies from the ethnographic record. A structural equation model is presented of the results for nonindustrial societies; it is generally in accord with previous findings from more complex societies. Because the nonindustrial sample is more variable, they also look at relationships between societal complexity and kinship heterogeneity, aspects that vary in nonindustrial societies.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. Pathogen stress and polygyny in humansLow, Bobbi S. - Human Reproductive Behaviour: A Darwinian Perspective, 1987 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests the association between pathogen risk and degree of polygyny and sexual advertisement. Results show that the greater the risk of serious pathogens, the greater the degree of polygyny. The correlation between pathogen risk and sexual signals is only marginally significant. An association between mate choice and resource control is also examined.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation studyGelfand, Michele J. - Science, 2011 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article explores differences between "tight" cultures ("have many strong norms and low tolerance of deviant behavior") and "loose" cultures ("have weak social norms and high tolerance of deviant behavior"). The tightness-looseness measure manifests in a myriad of macro and micro phenomena, from governance and religiosity to individual psychological processes. This study investigates these phenomena in modern nations rather than traditional societies. Potential ecological, historical, and socio-political predictors of tightness-looseness are also examined.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. Traditional agriculture practices and the sex ratio todayAlesina, Alberto - PLoS ONE, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study investigates the relationship between historical utilization of the plow and modern sex ratios. The authors argue that in societies without the plow subsistence is generally egalitarian with both men and women contributing. However, the use of the plow requires more physical strength which, they argue, leads to a preference for boys and, thus, men. Therefore, in cultures that use the plow, this is reflected in male-biased sex ratios which are negotiated by way of practices like sex-selective abortions, infanticide, and/or differential access to resources based on sex.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Restriction of sexual activity as a partial function of disease avoidance: a cultural response to sexual transmitted diseasesMackey, Wade C. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2001 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on the relationship between geographical location and sexual restrictiveness, proposing that less-constrained geographical areas have a higher risk of STDs and thus have higher sexual restrictiveness. The authors draw on data from Broude (1980) and other research to support this theory.

    Related DocumentsCite