Found 742 Documents across 75 Pages (0.011 seconds)
  1. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. Human responses to environmental extremeness and uncertainty: a cross-cultural perspectiveLow, Bobbi S. - Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, 1988 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on the effect of environmental extremes and unpredictability on human behavior and reproductive strategies. Significant correlations were found between environmental extremes and unpredictability and several variables, including mobility, subsistence mode, and degree of polygyny.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. Political institutionalization in primitive societies: a hologeistic analysisHill, Kim - Cross-Cultural Research, 1979 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines socio-economic predictors of political complexity. Findings suggest that class stratification is the most significant predictor of political complexity.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. Diversity and homogeneity in world societiesBourguignon, Erika - , 1973 - 23 Hypotheses

    This book provides a summary of data available in the Ethnographic Atlas. Social, political, economic, and kinship variables are included, as well as information about religious beliefs, social restrictions, and games. Data is divided into world areas for the purposes of regional comparison.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Warless and warlike hunter-gatherers: a comparisonKelly, Robert L. - Warless Societies and the Origin of War, 2000 - 7 Hypotheses

    This book examines the characteristics of warlike and warless foraging societies, as well as the transitional stages that occur when a society becomes warlike. Several predicted correlates of warfare frequency are supported.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Risk, mobility or population size?: Drivers of technological richness among contact-period western North American hunter–gatherersCollard, Mark - Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B., 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper builds off previous research into the effect of population size and resource risk on complexity of subsistence technology by investigating the relationship between these independent variables and total number of material items and techniques used by various western North American hunter-gatherer groups. This tally of total technological complexity is found to be insignificantly related to population size or residential mobility; however, there is a significant correlation in the expected direction between technological complexity and one measure of resource risk (mean annual temperature during driest month). Tying this finding to previous analyses of subsistence technologies, the authors theorize that environmental risk is a pervasive driver of technological ingenuity and cultural evolution.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. The local variability of rainfall and tribal institutions: the case of SudanNugent, Jeffrey B. - Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1999 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper poses and tests relationships between local spatial variability of rainfall and property rights, as well as the degree of hierarchy, across 41 different tribal societies in Sudan. The authors find that there is a significant negative relationship between rainfall variability and degree of hierarchy. They also find that in the presence of local rainfall variability in Sudan, members of a tribe are more likely to establish common property institutions that allow access to all members.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Risk of resource failure and toolkit variation in small-scale farmers and herdersCollard, Mark - PloS one, 2012 - 1 Hypotheses

    Prior research by Oswalt (1973, 1976) and Torrence (1983, 2001) has suggested that risk of resource failure is a significant predictor of toolkit complexity and diversity among hunter-gatherers. In this paper, the same relationship is tested among small-scale herding and farming groups. However, no significant correlation is discovered between any measure of resource risk and any measure of toolkit complexity. The researchers suggest that this absence may be the result of greater reliance on non-technological diversification methods among farmers (i.e. spatial diversification, mixed farming, intercropping), or of other unaccounted-for sources of risk (i.e. intergroup raiding and warfare).

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptationMathew, Sarah - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2015 - 8 Hypotheses

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Memory, transaction records, and the wealth of nationsBasu, Sudipta - Accounting, Organizations and Society, 2009 - 3 Hypotheses

    The history and diversity of recordkeeping worldwide is presented in connection with the effect of recordkeeping on social and economic development.

    Related DocumentsCite