Found 964 Documents across 97 Pages (0.006 seconds)
  1. Correlations in the population structure of music, genes and languageBrown, Steven - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2014 - 6 Hypotheses

    By testing relationships between musical, geographic, genetic, and linguistic distance among nine indigenous groups in Taiwan, the researchers aim to quantitatively evaluate a developing theory of coevolution between these traits. An especially strong correlation between musical variability and genetic distance suggests that music may possess worldwide time depth, diversity, and universality equal to or greater than that of language, and could thus serve as a complementary marker for reconstruction of long-term population shifts.

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  2. A cross-cultural study of female initiation ritesBrown, Judith K. - American Anthropologist, 1963 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study explores why initiation rites for girls are observed in some societies and absent in others. Further, the author seeks to understand cross-cultural variation in the rites.

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  3. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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  4. Medicine beneath your feet: a biocultural examination of the risks and benefits of geophagyYoung, Sera L. - Clays and Clay Minerals, 2019 - 1 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine the body of literature on the practice of geophagy(the consumption of earth), shining a light on the harms, benefits, and proposed reasoning behind the practice cross-sectionally. In addition to this review of the literature, gaps in the literature and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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  5. Social contact versus bodily contact: a qualitative difference between father and mother for the son's masculine identityKitahara, Michio - Behavior Science Research, 1978 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article draws on psychoanalytic theory and a previous study by Whiting (1964) to test the relationship between parent-child sleeping arrangements, particularly the implied social distance of fathers, and the presence of circumcision for males. Circumcision is assumed to be a social correction for mother-oriented personality in sons.

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  6. Extracted-Food Resource-Defense Polygyny in Native Western North American Societies at ContactSellen, Daniel W. - Current Anthropology, 2004 - 3 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to understand the connection between male resource-holding potential and male mating success. This connection has been suggested by behavioral ecologists as a way of explaining differing rates of polygyny across cultures. The authors investigate this relationship by testing the relationship between rates of polygyny and male control of local subsistence sites among North American societies during the period of contact. They find a positive relationship between these two variables for both terrestrial and aquatic game, but not for gathered plants. This suggests support for the theory.

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  7. Post-partum sex taboosMurdock, George Peter - Paideuma, 1967 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines two hypotheses concerning the length of the post-partum sex taboo. Analysis suggests that both animal husbandry (with consumption of domestic animals’ milk) and monogamy (which restricts men’s options for sexual partners) are inversely associated with the length of the post-partum sex taboo.

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  8. Living quarter arrangements in polygyny and circumcision and segregation of males at pubertyKitahara, Michio - Ethnology, 1974 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between polygynous living quarter arrangements and the presence or absence of circumcision and segregation of males at puberty. The amount of contact between the father and son is also examined as a factor.

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  9. A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differencesWood, Wendy - Psychological Bulletin, 2002 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the usefulness of three theoretical orientations in explaining sex differences cross-culturally: social constructionism, evolutionary psychology, and the authors’ biosocial theory. The biosocial model is tested in a thorough literature review, and the authors ultimately suggest that the patriarchy and division of labor by gender are due primarily to female reproductive activity and secondarily to male size and strength.

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  10. Economics and Family StructuresBaudin, Thomas - Working Papers ECARES, 2021 - 6 Hypotheses

    Through review of the economic literature and cross-cultural analysis of families (nuclear, stem, and complex), the authors show that family type is heterogeneous and argue that types other than nuclear have been largely ignored by economists. They encourage, based on their findings, further research on family structure and the development of better models for household decision making. They use ancestral populations in the ethnographic record to estimate country-level family patterns.

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