Found 841 Documents across 85 Pages (0.008 seconds)
  1. Kinship, Cooperation, and the Evolution of Moral SystemsEnke, Benjamin - The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2019 - 10 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the author argues that moral systems evolved as a way to enforce cooperation between people outside of kin groups. Because cooperation within kin groups has apparent adaptive advantages, it is argued that these moral systems will be less important for societies with tight kin groups and conversely more important for those with looser kin groups. In order to test this theory, the author creates an original model that incorporates both ethnographic data and data from contemporary countries. Thus, it is postulated that historical kinship practices will influence contemporary systems. The paper concludes that there is sufficient historical evidence for this theory.

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  2. Preferred interpersonal distances: A global comparisonSorokowska, Agnieszka - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2017 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors assess and compare preferred interpersonal distances over 42 countries. Environmental and sociopsychological factors are tested in order to explain variability in interpersonal distance across cultures. The authors seek to go beyond previous studies and better understand cultural differences and similarities in proxemic behaviors.

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  3. Adolescence: an anthropological inquirySchlegel, Alice - , 1991 - 81 Hypotheses

    This book discusses the characteristics of adolescence cross-culturally and examines the differences in the adolescent experience for males and females. Several relationships are tested in order to gain an understanding of cross-cultural patterns in adolescence.

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  4. Discriminatory attitudes against unvaccinated people during the pandemicBor, Alexander - Nature, 2023 - 10 Hypotheses

    A study assessed whether individuals express discriminatory attitudes in family and political settings across groups defined by COVID-19 vaccination status across 21 countries. The study found that vaccinated people express discriminatory attitudes towards unvaccinated individuals at a level as high as discriminatory attitudes commonly aimed at immigrant and minority populations. However, there was an absence of evidence that unvaccinated individuals display discriminatory attitudes towards vaccinated people. Discriminatory attitudes towards the unvaccinated were found in all countries except for Hungary and Romania and were more strongly expressed in cultures with stronger cooperative norms. The study suggests that contributors to the public good of epidemic control, such as vaccinated individuals, react negatively towards perceived "free-riders," such as unvaccinated individuals. The study also suggests that discriminatory attitudes, including support for the removal of fundamental rights, emerged despite appeals to moral obligations to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

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  5. Impact of societal culture on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality across countriesKumar, Rajiv - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article aims to demonstrate the effects of national culture on countries’ COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates when controlling for GDP and population age over 65. The author measured various cultural dimensions derived from GLOBE and tested it against the country’s COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. The author found a significant relationship between culture and COVID-19 outcomes suggesting that culture, beyond only GDP and age, may predict COVID-19 outcomes.

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  6. Group autonomy and internal group controlMarch, James G. - Social Forces, 1955 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study explores how differences in group autonomy are related to differences in internal group control. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that group autonomy is positively related to the manipulatory potential of the group and the control that the group has over its members.

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  7. Cross-Cultural Invariances in the Architecture of ShameSznycer, Daniel - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study looks at the possibility of a universal system of social valuation by examining the correlation between shame and devaluation. Researchers conducted an experiment among 899 participants from 15 communities of high cultural variation in order to test if similar relationships between shame and devaluation exist independently of cultural contact or cultural evolution. The findings reveal that shame and devaluation are closely linked both between individuals and members of a local audience, as well as cross-culturally.

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  8. When one wife is enough: a cross-cultural study of the determinants of monogamyDow, Malcolm M. - Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article tests a myriad of factors that may have contributed to the adoption of monogamy in preindustrial societies. Results indicate that monogamy is not imposed by elites; rather, it is a strategy often chosen by women who can see no advantage to increasing the size or economic productivity of their households with more wives. The authors also assert that monogamy is generally adopted through cultural diffusion. Low pathogen stress, low risk of famine, and low endemic violence are also correlated with monogamy.

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  9. The conditions favoring age-set organizationRitter, Madeline Lattman - Journal of Anthropological Research, 1980 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article reviews the theories on age-set systems and presents a cross-cultural test of Bernardi's theory regarding the development of age-sets as a response to a need for a system of integration in the context of frequent warfare. The findings do not support the hypothesis but rather point to the importance of changing group size and composition of local groups, as well as warfare, in predicting age-set systems.

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  10. Family First: Evidence of Consistency and Variation in the Value of Family Versus Personal Happiness Across 49 Different CulturesKrys, Kuba - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    Following the research question "How much people tend to value their own versus their family’s well-being?", this study compares cultures across 49 countries to see how much they might differ in their emphasis on the pursuit of happiness. The authors explore the idealization of happiness rather than actual happiness and have a focus on the correlation between 'ideal happiness' and 'relational mobility'. The results show that the preference's strength of family's well-being over personal happiness is small; however, it is shown in 98% of the countries surveyed. In addition, cultures with high relational mobility show a relatively minimal preference for family over personal happiness, while cultures with low relational mobility show a moderate level. This supports the idea that there is a negative correlation between relational mobility and preference for family happiness. There is no strong support for traditional theories in cross-cultural psychology that link collectivism to a greater emphasis on family over the individual.

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