Found 518 Documents across 52 Pages (0.013 seconds)
  1. Reducing post-disaster conflict: a cross cultural test of four hypotheses using archaeological dataPeregrine, Peter N. - Environmental Hazards, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article uses pre-defined criteria to sample 22 archaeological climate-related disasters from 9 distinct regions from eHRAF Archaeology. It quantitatively tests four hypotheses regarding change in conflict following climate-related disasters using multiple regression analyses and backwards stepwise regression. Findings demonstrate association between political strategy/authority decision making and degree of post climate disaster conflict.

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  2. Ethnic violence in Africa: destructive legacies of pre-colonial statesPaine, Jack - International Organization, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study investigated the difference in rates of violence of precolonial states and stateless ethnic groups in postcolonial Africa. The author hypothesized ethnic groups of precolonial states (PCS) would experience more violence, (i.e. coup attempts and civil wars) than non-PCS groups. The author suggested that because of PCS countries’ inability to allow rival ethnic groups into power positions in addition to the extra power PCS groups gained under colonial rule may lead to more violence.

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  3. Explaining divergence in the long-term effects of precolonial centralization on access to public infrastructure services in NigeriaArchibong, Belinda - World Development, 2019 - 8 Hypotheses

    This study investigates previous findings that indicate precolonial centralization was beneficial for development in Africa. Using new survey data from public primary schools, the author shows that the failure of leaders of centralized regions to comply with federal regimes was punished with underinvestment in public infrastructure services, hindering development and limiting access to these services in recent populations. The author proposes that the extent to which precolonial centralization was beneficial for development in Africa is mediated by compliance of the local governing bodies with federal regimes.

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  4. A Test of an Evolutionary Hypothesis of Violence Against Women: The Case of Sex RatioStone, Emily A. - Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 2017 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study investigates variation in rates of violence against women, primarily interested in two main hypotheses: the Culture of Violence Hypothesis and the Functional Violence Hypothesis. Using the SCCS along with variables from Broude & Greene (1976) and Ember & Ember (1992), the study concluded that warring societies were associated with a greater intolerance of rape, contradicting the Culture of Violence Hypothesis, whereas wife beating, as well as tolerance towards rape, increased with scarcity of women, in line with the evolutionary Functional Violence Hypothesis.

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  5. Explaining monogamy and polygyny among foragers and horticulturalistsHooper, Paul L. - , 2006 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article tests several hypotheses related to the presence or absence of polygyny. Results suggest a negative relationship between polygyny and male provisioning, and positive relationships between polygyny and warfare, interpersonal aggression, and pathogen stress.

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  6. Explaining marriage patterns in a globally representative sample through socio-ecology and population history: A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using a new supertreeMinocher, Riana - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2019 - 23 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine marriage patterns of 186 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). The eleven predictor variables are pathogen stress, arranged female marriages, population density, father roles during infancy, temperature, social stratification, wealth inequality, internal warfare, assault frequency, female agricultural contribution, and sex ratio. The two outcome variables measuring polygyny are cultural rules constraining polygyny and the percentage of married men who are polygynous. Controlling on phylogeny using a global supertree of the languages, analysis of marriage patterns reveals that assault frequency and pathogen stress are the strongest predictors of polygyny. These findings offer additional support for the theories of harem-defense polygyny and male genetic quality.

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  7. The economic origins of the evil eye beliefGershman, Boris - Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2015 - 5 Hypotheses

    The author analyzes 76 societies synchronically, positing that the evil eye belief functions as a useful heuristic and prosocial/cohesive element in weakly-institutionalized societies with significant wealth inequality; in particular, the evil eye belief is found to be more prevalent in agro-pastoral societies where material wealth is vulnerable and plays a dominant role in subsistence economy.

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  8. Systemic population control in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences based on contemporary hunter-gatherersDivale, William Tulio - World Archaeology, 1972 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines cultural forms of population control. Results suggest that female infanticide and warfare are interrelated and effective forms of population control.

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  9. A Test of an Evolutionary Hypothesis of Violence against Women: The Case of Sex RatioStone, Emily A. - Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 2017 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper presents empirical tests of two theories put forth to explain violence toward women. The first predicts that warfare promotes socialization for aggression and legitimizes violence toward women, while the second predicts that violence works as a way to control potential for female infidelity. An association is found between high male-to-female sex ratio and violence towards women, suggesting support for the second theory over the first, which is consistent with more narrowly-focused studies by Avakame (1999), Bose et al. (2013), and D'Alessio & Stolzenberg (2010).

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  10. Male aggressiveness as intrasexual contest competition in a cross-cultural sampleCarter, Tara-Lyn - Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present study tests the theory that intrasexual selection or male attraction may explain variation in male aggression in a sample of 78 societies. Measures of intrasexual selection include: male subsistence, male war mortality, polygyny, sex ratio, and wives variance. The authors claim support for the theory.

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