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  1. Drivers of insect consumption across human populationsCruz y Celis Peniche, Patricio - Evolutionary Anthropology, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to shed light on the practice of entomophagy (insect consumption) across human population and seeks to explain the variability in its practice. The author explore potential ecological predictors for insect consumption (climate, subsistence practices, other available food resources, dietary needs) as well as cultural predictors (social transmission, cultural norms, evolution, and shift). Ultimately, the author concludes that entomophagy may be a useful medium through which to examine the interaction between social learning, subsistence strategies, and modernization.

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  2. Why on earth?: Evaluating hypotheses about the physiological functions of human geophagyYoung, Sera L. - The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2011 - 5 Hypotheses

    The author tests various hypotheses regarding cross-cultural occurrence of geophagy, the eating of earth. Nearly 500 years of references to geophagy were compiled into the Database on Human Geophagy, which was then used to examine biological justifications for this little-understood behavior.

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  3. Reproductive immunosuppression and diet: an evolutionary perspective on pregnancy sickness and meat consumptionFessler, Daniel M.T. - Current Anthropology, 2002 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines meat avoidance during pregnancy as an evolutionary adaptation. Data suggests that during pregnancy, meat avoidance is significantly more common cross-culturally than other types of food avoidance. The timing of meat avoidance, the presence of meat-borne pathogens, and sensory and ingestive changes in early pregnancy are also discussed.

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  4. Geophagy in pregnancy: a test of a hypothesisWiley, Andrea S. - Current Anthropology, 1998 - 1 Hypotheses

    Geophagy during pregnancy has been proposed to fulfill a number of adaptive functions, including relieving gastrointestinal distress, detoxification of the secondary compounds found in plant foods, and providing a supplementary source of minerals such as calcium. Using a sample of 60 African populations, the authors investigate geophagy during pregnancy in a cross-cultural perspective, emphasizing variation between dairying and non-dairying populations.

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  5. Effects of Evolution, Ecology, and Economy on Human Diet: Insights from Hunter-Gatherers and Other Small-Scale SocietiesPontzer, Herman - Annual Review of Nutrition, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study, primarily a review on the evolution of the human diet, also includes a small study on the distribution of meat-eating and its relationship with climate and cultural factors, namely subsistence type. The authors find that societies with subsistence strategies that prioritize fishing, hunting, or pastoralism also tend to consume more animal products, whereas those that focus on agriculture have more plant-based diets. The authors argue that these small-scale societies have a healthier approach to diet than industrialized societies regardless of their subsistence type or meat consumption.

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  6. A Cross-Cultural Summary: PregnancyTextor, Robert B. - A Cross-Cultural Summary, 1967 - 14 Hypotheses

    Textor summarizes cross-cultural findings on pregnancy and childbirth pertaining to cultural, environmental, psychological, and social phenomena.

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  7. Was the Duchess of Windsor right?: A cross-cultural review of the socioecology of ideals of female body shapeAnderson, Judith L. - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1992 - 7 Hypotheses

    Cultures vary widely in regards to beauty standards for female body fat: while industrialized nations typically prefer thinness in women, ethnographic reports indicate that plumpness is valued in many small-scale societies. Here the authors evaluate several hypotheses that relate variation in female body fat preference to variation in socioecology such as food storage, climate, male social dominance, valuation and restriction of women's work, and female stress during adolescence.

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  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adultsHolden, Clare - Human Biology, 1997 - 4 Hypotheses

    The ability of adults to digest lactose is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin, a distribution thought to be a result of genetic adaptation to drinking milk from domestic livestock. Two additional hypotheses have been proposed to explain the distribution of high lactose digestion capacity: (1) supplemental calcium in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin D deficiency and (2) maintenance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly arid environments. However, these hypotheses are confounded by the shared ancestry of populations whose lactose digestion capability has been tested. Therefore, the authors test all three hypotheses using a phylogenetic comparative method for 62 cultures.

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  9. Harsh environments promote alloparental care across human societiesMartin, J.S. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2020 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study utilizes Bayesian statistics to test the associations between harsh environments (specifically those with higher degrees of climate variability and relatively lower average temperature and precipitation) and alloparental care in societies throughout the world. Results support the hypothesis that societies in harsher environments show higher rates of alloparental care and that societies with higher rates of starvation and resource stress exhibit lower rates of alloparental care. The authors explain this theorizing that in the former relative costs are sufficiently outweighed by the benefits of this type of cooperation and in the latter they are not. They conclude that their results support the plasticity of human alloparenting as a response to varying ecology.

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  10. Allomaternal nursing in humansHewlett, Barry S. - Current Anthropology, 2014 - 6 Hypotheses

    Considerable variation has been observed in allomaternal nursing (breast-feeding by individuals other than mothers) behavior across contemporary foraging populations: while relatively common in some populations, it is rare or absent among others. Here the authors examine data on allomaternal nursing from 12 previous studies of foraging societies and utilize a worldwide sample of 104 cultures to assess global variation in allomaternal nursing.

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