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  1. Communities of Soil and Stone- An Archaeological Investigation of Population AggregationAdler, Michael A. - Chapters 4 & 5, 1990 - 6 Hypotheses

    The dissertation in its entirety is an archaeological investigation of population aggregation among the Mesa Verde region Anasazi A.D. 900-1300. Chapters four and five of Adlers larger work focus on cross-cultural perspectives to inform discussion around resource access and community strength. Multiple different hypotheses were tested with different data sets, but the HRAF database and Standard Cross Cultural Sample were used throughout.

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  2. Ritual Facilities and Social Integration in Nonranked SocietiesAdler, Michael A. - The Architecture of Social Integration in Prehistoric Pueblos, 1989 - 2 Hypotheses

    The author sampled 28 nonhierarchical, sedentary (at least partially), and demographically documented societies to examine the presence, size, and use of socially integrative facilities. Examing the ethnographic record from the Human Relations Area Files, the author looked to test the assumption that kivas were intended for communal ritual activity.

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  3. Female exclusion from religious roles: a cross-cultural test of competing explanationsWelch, Michael R. - Social Forces, 1982 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines three theories regarding the lack of participation by women in community religious roles. Empirical analysis suggests that only resource theory has predictive power. Most clearly it suggests that women are more likely to be shamans in societies in which they are highly influential in kin networks but maintain minimal control of property. Neither gynephobia nor the presence of sex-differentiated social spheres appears associated with the prohibition of women’s participation in religious roles.

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  4. Pathways to social inequalityHaynie, Hannah J. - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    In this study, the authors examine pathways to social inequality, specifically social class hierarchy, in 408 non-industrial societies. In a path model, they find social class hierarchy to be directly associated with increased population size, intensive agriculture and large animal husbandry, real property inheritance (unigeniture) and hereditary political succession, with an overall R-squared of 0.45. They conclude that a complex web of effects consisting of environmental variables, mediated by resource intensification, wealth transmission variables, and population size all shape social inequality.

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  5. Intensification, tipping points, and social change in a coupled forager-resource systemFreeman, Jacob - Human Nature, 2012 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors present a bioeconomic model of hunter-gatherer foraging effort to quantitatively represent forager intensification. Using cross-cultural data, the model is evaluated as a means to better understand variation in residential stability and resource ownership.

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  6. Comparative Study of Territoriality across Forager SocietiesMoritz, Mark - Human Ecology, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers investigated the variation of land tenure systems across forager societies using the economic defensibility model. The study attempted to explain the variation in tenure systems across 30 hunter-gatherer societies. Using data on defense and sharing of resources among groups, and indicators of resource density, resource predictability, and competition for resources, the researchers were unable to explain the variation. This study highlights the vast range of diversity and complexity of foragers subsistence strategies, and proposes that it may be more telling to conceptualize tenure systems among hunter-gatherer societies as assemblages of multiple property regimes. While there was no overall evidence that environmental variables of resource density and predictability explain variation in tenure systems, researchers did find that increasing population density, and greater competition for resources leads to greater territoriality.

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  7. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnick, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 9 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the authors utilize phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolution of land tenure norms among 97 Austronesian societies. They coded these norms for each society as none (N), group (G), group-kin (K), and individual (I). After formulating various models of evolution through these various stages, they used Bayesian analysis to determine support for each. They conclude with remarks about this type of evolutionary phylogenetic research as a form of "virtual archeology."

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  8. Predictors of Land Privatization: Cross-Cultural Tests of Defendability and Resource Stress TheoryEmber, Carol R. - American Anthropologist, 2020 - 13 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to understand the predictors of land privatization by empirically testing defendability and resource stress theory. By drawing on previous research they are able to test these theories in more expansive and nuanced ways. They conclude that they have found strong support for defendability theory.

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  9. Political and demographic-ecological determinants of institutionalised human sacrificeWinkelman, Michael James - Anthropological Forum: A Journal of Social Anthropology and Comparative Sociology, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The author builds upon previous research (Winkelman 1998) to further elucidate the cross-cultural predictors of institutionalized human sacrifice. The author considers a range of ecological factors and political variables, particularly geopolitical dynamics and intra- and inter-group relations. Other factors were explored, including social complexity and social structures. The author identifies the lack of an effective superordinate political authority as a main determinant in similar behaviors contemporarily (e.g. suicide bombers, beheadings, public brutality in civil war).

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  10. House types and settlement patternsRobbins, Michael C. - Minnesota Archaeologist, 1966 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article proposes that ground plans may be used as a criterion for determining the relative permanence of settlement patterns in archaelogical societies. Results suggest that impermanent settlements and small community size are significantly associated with circular ground plans and that permanent settlements with larger community sizes are significantly associated with rectangular ground plans.

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