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  1. Son preference and health disparities in developing countriesLe, Kien - SSM - Population Health, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using regression analyses with a sample of over one million under 5 children across 66 developing nations from the Demographic and Health Survey, this study explores the impact of son preference on health disparities between male and female children. The authors consider the Grossman Theory (1972), which suggests health as a lasting "capital stock in the production of healthy time". The idea is that health gradually diminishes and can be restored through investments in various health-related factors such as nutrition and medical services. Although parents with son preference may make distinct and rational investments in both genders, favoritism may impact the health outcomes of female children. The authors suggest that the degree of son preference's impact will vary between families according to their socio-economic background. There is support for both hypotheses, since the results show that son preference enhances health disparities based on gender and disproportionately affects female children of lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

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  2. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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  3. The effects of mortality, subsistence, and ecology on human adult height and implicationsMigliano, Andrea Bamberg - Current Anthropology, 2012 - 1 Hypotheses

    By better understanding the factors influencing adult height in modern populations, the authors hope to generate a testable hypothesis to determine the factors affecting body size during hominin evolution. The authors employ an exploratory linear regression model to test the effects of mortality, environment, and subsistence strategy on adult height among traditional small scale human societies. They found that mortality rates were the most significant predictor of adult height and that people living in savanna environments are consistently taller.

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  4. A cross-cultural investigation into the sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Sexual Dimorphism in Homo sapiens: A Question of Size, 1982 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article examines height and sexual dimorphism of stature from a sociobiological perspective. Diet, child rearing, and marriage practices are tested as possible factors contributing to height sexual dimorphism of stature. Results provide some support for a nutritional hypotheses, but sexual selection and parental investment are not statistically significant.

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  5. A Cross-Cultural Nutrition Survey of 118 Societies, Representing the Major Cultural and Geographic Areas of the WorldWhiting, Marjorie Grant - , 1958 - 22 Hypotheses

    Dietary variation has been implicated in population-level heath outcomes such as adult height and infant health. Here the author investigates these relationships in a sample of 118 nonindustrial societies, providing a comparative and quantitative assessment of nutrition and health cross-culturally.

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  6. Height and sexual dimorphism of stature among human societiesGray, J. Patrick - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1980 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article explores the relationship between sexual dimorphism of stature and variables of marriage, diet, subsistence and environment. Significant associations were found between security and plentifulness of food supply, protein availability, and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  7. Ancestral Kinship and the Origins of IdeologyFasching, Neil - British Journal of Political Science, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    The preindustrial family structure instilled family members with values that passed through generations and impact today's political attitudes and policies. Three studies show that ancestral kinship structure predicts right-wing cultural attitudes and, among those less engaged in politics, left-wing economic attitudes (though controlling for the country of residence removes this prediction). Stronger country-level ancestral kinship strength also increases anti-LGBT policies and welfare spending. This work indicates that political beliefs are rooted in the value systems and familial institutions created by our forebears.

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  8. Correlates and consequences of stress in infancyLandauer, Thomas K. - Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development, 1981 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study is a continuation of previous research on the relationship between stress during infancy and adult height. With a better understanding of the stressors that infants experience and their effects, the authors test whether the relationship between stress and adult height remains significant when accounting for other environmental factors that may influence adult height. Results suggest that the relationship between infant stress and adult height does remain significant. Findings also show a relationship between infant stress and age at menarche.

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  9. Mother-infant separation and physical growthGunders, Shulamith - Ethnology, 1968 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between adult male height and mother-infant separation. Results indicate that males who are separated from their mothers briefly during infancy are taller in adulthood than those who are not.

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  10. Menarcheal age and infant stress in humansWhiting, John W.M. - Sex and Behavior, 1965 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between infant stress and early menarche. Empirical analysis suggests that stress in infancy, such as mother-infant separation and head-shaping, are associated with early menarche.

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