Found 527 Documents across 53 Pages (0.008 seconds)
  1. Climate and behavior: a biocultural studyRobbins, Michael C. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1972 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study proposes ways in which the environment may affect behavioral and psychocultural processes. Results provide moderate support for a relationship between climate and emotional expressiveness.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. Same-sex competition and sexual conflict expressed through witchcraft accusationsPeacey, Sarah - Scientific Reports, 2022 - 11 Hypotheses

    In this study, the authors analyze relationships between witchcraft accusations and the gender of the accused. They find that men are most often accused of witchcraft in their sample of 54 Bantu or Bantoid societies, and are particularly more likely to be accused of witchcraft by unrelated or blood-related individuals or in disputes over wealth or prestige. On the other hand, women are more likely to be accused of witchcraft in affinal relationships, particularly husbands and co-wives, and in situations related to fertility or relationships. Elderly women were also more likely to be accused of witchcraft than elderly men. The authors also examined outcomes of witchcraft accusations, finding that 81% of cases resulted in a negative outcome for the accused. They suggest that competition underlies accusations of witchcraft.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. The natural environment's impact upon religious ethics: a cross-cultural studySnarey, John - Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1996 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between water scarcity and morally concerned high gods. Analysis supported this association. Implications of this cross-cultural finding are discussed.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. Socioecology shapes child and adolescent time allocation in twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence forager societiesLew-Levy, Sheina - Nature Scientific Reports, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand the roles played by children and adolescents in hunter-gatherer societies in relation to their social and ecological context. The authors set out to investigate how environmental factors, ecological risk, and the energetic contributions of adult men and women to food production may have influenced children/adolescent allocation of time to child care, domestic work, food production, and play. In order to carry out this study, the authors logged the behaviors of 690 children and adolescents from twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies (Agta, Aka, Baka, BaYaka, Dukha, Hadza, Matsi-genka, Maya, Mayangna, Mikea, Pume, and Tsimane), totaling 85,597 unique observations. The study found that harsh environmental factors were not associated with child/adolescent time allocation, but that local ecological risk such as dangerous animals and lack of water availability predicted decreased time allocation to child care and domestic work, and that increased adult female participation in food production was associated with less time invested in child care among boys. It also found that all gendered differences in time allocation among children were stronger when men made greater contributions to food production than women. The authors interpret these results to signify that parents may play a role in preparing their children for environmental and ecological difficulty in order to help them develop skills that will help them become useful community members as adults.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the PacificCurrie, Thomas E. - Nature, 2010 - 6 Hypotheses

    A central issue in anthropology is the process through which political organization (sometimes referred to as cultural complexity) evolves: competing models typically argue for either incremental increases in complexity or larger, non-sequential increases in complexity. Here, the authors evaluate six different models of political evolution, utilizing a phylogenetic approach to analyze the evolution of 84 Austronesian-speaking societies.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Ecowisdom and Water in Human SettlementsLieberknecht, Katherine - Ecological Wisdom, 2019 - 0 Hypotheses

    This chapter comes from a book chiefly concerned with the issue of "ecological wisdom." The concept of ecological wisdom is defined as historical and contextual knowledge about both a local environment and the systems and relationships present in that environment. In this chapter, the author is specifically interested in ways that ecological wisdom is involved with water conservation strategies. To this end, the author collected 1012 records of water systems from eHRAF World Cultures which were qualitatively coded into 12 types of ecologically wise water conservation strategies. Two of these strategies are then explored in detail.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. Data quality and modes of marriage: some holocultural evidence of systematic errorsSchaefer, James Michael - Behavior Science Research, 1976 - 2 Hypotheses

    Authors explore the problem of data quality control, systematic error and spurious correlations possibly caused by systematic errors in global cross-cultural studies. They offer a solution (the use of control variables investigating potential sources of systematic error) and apply the technique to a cross-cultural study of the substantive correlates of societal organization and modes of marriage.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. The global geography of human subsistenceGavin, Michael C. - Royal Society Open Science, 2018 - 8 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to determine cross-culturally valid predictors of dominant types of human subsistence around the world. They did this by formulating multiple models that incorporate different combinations of environmental, geographic, and social factors. These models were then used to test various hypotheses posed throughout the anthropological literature surrounding factors that determine dominant subsistence strategies.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. The global ecology of differentiation between us and themVan de Vliert, Evert - Nature Human Behavior, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    In this article the researcher conducted five different studies on in-group or "we-group" vs out-group or "they-group" discrimination practices. Two previous hypotheses are re-examined, the pathogen stress hypothesis and the rice-wheat hypothesis, in order to explain heightened ingroup-outgroup differentiation, before turning to overarching geographical hypothesis. Each of the five studies look at a different group of societies cross-culturally, ending in an index of intergroup discrimination by individuals across 222 countries in study 5. All five studies conclude that differentiation between us and them varies based on geographical location and more specifically, along latitude.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Consanguinity as a Major Predictor of Levels of Democracy: A Study of 70 NationsWoodley, Michael A. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    While it is widely accepted that there are a multitude of variables that contribute to a society’s level of democracy, the authors of this study argue that the prevalence of consanguinity is one that is often overlooked. Using a sample of 70 nations, they tested the relationship between consanguinity (defined as marriage and subsequent mating between second cousins or closer relatives) and level of democracy (defined by both the Polity IV scale and the EIU Index) and found a significant negative relationship. Similarly, when controlled for a host of different variables in multiple regression analysis, the significant relationship between consanguinity and level of democracy held true.

    Related DocumentsCite