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  1. Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to explain the forager population paradoxGurven, Michael D. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2019 - 5 Hypotheses

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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  2. Sexually transmitted disease and gender roles: an index of cultural evolutionMackey, Wade C. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and several parameters of a nation’s demography, including income, mortality, labor, fertility, and homicide rates. Associations were supported by statistical tests. Regional differences are considered; Europe and the Muslim area had lower level of women’s HIV/AIDS infection. Four cultural adaptations to combat STDs are discussed.

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  3. Male contribution to diet and female reproductive successMarlowe, Frank W. - Current Anthropology, 2001 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article seeks to understand male-female bonding by testing the relationship between male contribution to subsistence (a proxy for male provisioning) and female reproductive success in foraging societies. Analysis supports a positive association.

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  4. Men’s status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategyvon Rueden, Christopher R. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers examine associations between male status and various measures of reproductive success among foraging/non-foraging, and monogamous/polygynous societies in order to test the "egalitarian hypothesis" which predicts lower status effects in hunter-gatherer groups. Contrary to this hypothesis, they find that male social status is equally significantly associated with reproductive success in foraging and nonforaging societies. Additional support is found for the "mating effort" hypothesis, which predicts that male reproductive success will be more associated with fertility than offspring mortality in polygynous societies, leading the authors to make various suggestions regarding the evolutionary mechanisms at play.

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  5. Traditional agriculture practices and the sex ratio todayAlesina, Alberto - PLoS ONE, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study investigates the relationship between historical utilization of the plow and modern sex ratios. The authors argue that in societies without the plow subsistence is generally egalitarian with both men and women contributing. However, the use of the plow requires more physical strength which, they argue, leads to a preference for boys and, thus, men. Therefore, in cultures that use the plow, this is reflected in male-biased sex ratios which are negotiated by way of practices like sex-selective abortions, infanticide, and/or differential access to resources based on sex.

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  6. Fertility and mode of subsistence: a phylogenetic analysisSellen, Daniel W. - Current Anthropology, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study tests for a relationship between subsistence type and fertility using phylogenetic and statistical analyses. The authors find a clear relationship between dependence on agriculture and fertility among non-permanently settled groups.

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  7. A Cross-Cultural Summary: FertilityTextor, Robert B. - , 1967 - 4 Hypotheses

    Textor summarizes cross-cultural findings on polygyny pertaining to cultural, environmental, psychological, and social phenomena.

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  8. On the relationship between country sex ratios and teen pregnancy ratesBarber, Nigel - Cross-Cultural Research, 2000 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study attempted to replicate earlier findings regarding population structure and teen pregnancy rates. Findings support the previous predictions that sex ratio, economic development, and latitude are all inversely related to teen birth rates.

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  9. Where do cultures come from?Kanazawa, Satoshi - Cross-Cultural Research, 2006 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article explores how the evolutionary psychological perspective explains cultural universals and variations. This framework is then used to test whether wealth affects parents' preferences of sons or daughters on an individual and national level. Results suggest that wealthier individuals and wealthier nations prefer sons to daughters.

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  10. Culture and National well-being: should societies emphasize freedom or constraint?Harrington, Jesse R. - PLoS ONE, 2015 - 9 Hypotheses

    The purpose of the present study is to provide insight on the debate concerning how best to organize societies: with more freedom (looseness) or with more constraint (tightness). In a comparison of 32 nations, Harrington, Boski, and Gelfand examine the relationship between tightness/looseness and three dimensions of societal well-being: psychosocial, health, and political/economic outcomes. Findings indicate that excessive constraint and/or freedom contribute to poorer psychosocial, health, and economic/political outcomes, as well as overall national-level well-being. These results suggest that a balance of freedom and constraint is associated with optimal societal well-being.

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