Found 624 Documents across 63 Pages (0.036 seconds)
  1. Universality and diversity in human songMehr, Samuel A. - Science, 2019 - 6 Hypotheses

    In asking whether or not there are meaningful universals in music, researchers compiled two catalogs – the Natural History of Song (NHS) Ethnography which contains ethnographic descriptions of song performances collected from eHRAF World Cultures, and the NHS Discography, which contains field recordings of performances of dance, healing, love, and lullaby. Using these two corpora, the study tests a variety of hypotheses about the universality and variability of both music behavior and music form. Specifically, whether there are meaningful universals in meaning and sound. The catalog of published sound recordings was analyzed by machine summaries, listener ratings, and manual transcriptions, which revealed that there were identifiable features of songs which could then predict their primary function cross-culturally. The results as a whole revealed that the existence of music is a cultural universal, and that the variation within music can be characterized by three factors assessing the formality, arousal, and religiosity of the song events. They also found that musical behavior varies more within societies than between them.

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  2. Cross-Cultural Correlates of the Ownership of Private PropertyRudmin, Floyd Webster - Social Science Research, 1992 - 2 Hypotheses

    The present study aims to assess the reliability of Simmons' (1937) database of 109 variables coded for 71 societies. Simmons' data was evaluated against matching societies and variables from Murdock's (1967) Ethnographic Atlas. The ultimate purpose of Rudmin's analysis is to identify the features of societies that are correlated with the private ownership of property. To do so, Simmons' reliable variables are tested against four measures of property ownership, two from Simmons and two from Murdock. Rudmin discusses results and speculates why certain clusters of societal variables correlate with private property ownership.

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  3. A cross-cultural method for predicting nonmaterial traits in archeologyMcNett, Charles W., Jr. - Behavior Science Notes, 1970 - 2 Hypotheses

    "This paper presents an exploratory attempt to solve the problem of how to infer traits for which no direct material evidence remains." The author suggests that the archeologically defined community pattern can predict several sociocultural traits. Results support this hypothesis.

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  4. Factor analysis of a cross-cultural sampleMcNett, Charles W., Jr. - Behavior Science Notes, 1973 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study employs factor analysis to develop a settlement pattern scale of cultural complexity. Political, economic, and religious factors are identified and implications for the structure of the cultural system are discussed.

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  5. Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human musicSavage, Patrick E. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015 - 2 Hypotheses

    The authors develop CantoCore, an expansion of Lomax's Cantometrics scheme, in order to code for additional candidate musical universals. No musical feature occurs with absolute universality, but several features occur with statistically significant frequency after controlling for historical relatedness, and an additional set of features were found to be universally related to each other. The authors highlight the role of these features in human coordination and cohesion, as well as their their utility to the fields of musical cognition and evolution.

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  6. Notes on technology and the moral orderGouldner, Alvin W. - The Advanced Studies Series, 1962 - 7 Hypotheses

    Using empirical data and statistical methodology, Gouldner and Peterson aim to identify fundamental dimensions across societies, examine the relationships among these dimensions, and evaluate their importance. Data analysis is largely based on factor analysis, and the authors discuss how statistical methods fit into functional social theory.

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  7. Social behaviors associated with hereditary community leadershipBarry III, Herbert - Social Evolution & History, 2005 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article examines the homoarchical custom of hereditary community leadership. Four predictors are identified: (1) permission of premarital heterosexual intercourse by females, (2) small community population, (3) multiple social classes or castes, and (4) praying or violence as a component of community ceremonies. Log linear analysis shows all but the third are significantly associated with hereditary community leadership.

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  8. Folk song style and cultureLomax, Alan - , 1968 - 9 Hypotheses

    A large-scale comparative study of folk songs around the world employing systematic measures (cantometrics). The aim was not just to describe variation but to test hypotheses about the relationships between song style and societal structures. Dance was also considered.

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  9. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversityRzeszutek, Tom - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2012 - 1 Hypotheses

    By analyzing patterns of between- and within-population musical variability among 16 Austronesian-speaking aboriginal groups, the researchers hope to evaluate degree of similarity to structures of human genetic diversity. As in the genetic domain, within-population variance is found to be much higher than between-population variance, leading the researchers to suggest that patterns of musical distance and divergence may serve as an indicator of cultural evolution.

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  10. Social solidarityLomax, Alan - Folk Song Style and Culture, 1968 - 9 Hypotheses

    This chapter examines the relationship between social cohesion (measured using variables like subsistence type, stable work teams, and settlement patterns) and musical cohesion. All hypotheses are supported.

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