Found 741 Documents across 75 Pages (0.013 seconds)
  1. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptationMathew, Sarah - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2015 - 8 Hypotheses

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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  2. Synchrony in the new world: an example of archaeoethnologyPeregrine, Peter N. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2006 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article employs archaeoethnology to investigate possible patterns of synchronous population growth among cities of the prehistoric New World. The author finds a pattern of settlement synchrony distinct from a pattern found in the prehistoric Old World, suggesting that global climate change may not be a key factor in understanding settlement synchrony. Macroregional political and economic processes such as long-distance trade are offered as partial explanations of settlement synchrony in the New World.

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  3. Primitive warfare and Appendix IXWright, Quincy - A Study of War, 1942 - 7 Hypotheses

    This chapter is concerned with correlates of warlikeness among non-industrial societies. Findings indicate that warlikeness is associated with climate, mobility, subsistence, political integration, division of labor, culture contact.

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  4. Borrowing versus migration as selection factors in cultural evolutionNaroll, Raoul - Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This paper investigates two mechanisms of cultural evolution: peaceful diffusion and warlike migration. Two societies, one for each mechanism, were compared to a base society on 11 culture traits. Eight of the 11 traits diffused more readily through peaceful borrowing than through warlike migration. The authors conclude that eliminating warlike migration would slow cultural evolution but that peaceful borrowing is a favored mechanism for culture contact and change.

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  5. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnick, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 9 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the authors utilize phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolution of land tenure norms among 97 Austronesian societies. They coded these norms for each society as none (N), group (G), group-kin (K), and individual (I). After formulating various models of evolution through these various stages, they used Bayesian analysis to determine support for each. They conclude with remarks about this type of evolutionary phylogenetic research as a form of "virtual archeology."

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  6. Cargo cults and relational separationKnauft, Bruce M. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1978 - 1 Hypotheses

    The author hypothesizes that the level of disruption caused by a cargo cult varies directly with the degree to which indigenous people become separated from the agents of Western culture directly prior to the cult outbreak. Results support this hypothesis.

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  7. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  8. Societies of strangers do not speak less complex languagesShcherbakova, Olena - Science Advances, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    Is grammatical complexity shaped by sociodemographic and sociolinguistic factors? The previously accepted "linguistic niche hypothesis" claims that with an increased number of nonnative speakers in a social group (high exotericity), grammatic complexity decreases; on the other hand, grammatical complexity increases amongst isolated linguistic communities (low exotericity). Through the use of spatiophylogenetic modelling of 1314 languages, the authors of this study do not find adequate evidence to support the linguistic niche hypothesis. Instead, they suggest that linguistic complexity is better predicted by phylogeny and geographic contiguity.

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  9. Dimensions of a Complex Concept: A Method ExemplifiedHickman, John M. - Human Organization, 1962 - 1 Hypotheses

    The present study examines the validity of Robert Redfield's one-dimensional "folk-urban continuum" in a sample of 70 pre-industrial societies. As hypothesized, a factor analysis revealed that there is more than a single overriding factor about the "folk-urban continuum." These variables include kinship organization, size-complexity, and relative isolation. The author also contends there is an inverse relationship between relative isolation and size-complexity.

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  10. A cross-cultural historical analysis of subsistence changeBradley, Candice - American Anthropologist, 1990 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study employs optimal scaling analysis to examine change in subsistence economy in a cross-cultural sample of 73 societies. Findings are discussed in addition to methodological considerations for sampling.

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