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  1. Pama–Nyungan grandparent systems change with grandchildren, but not cross-cousin terms or social normsSheard, Catherine - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2020 - 5 Hypotheses

    After noticing that there are no cross-cultural phylogenetic studies of grandparent terminologies, the authors use the record from 134 Pama-Nyungan languages to explore the evolution of this kinship category and to evaluate the effects of social structures in this evolution. The authors suggest that there used to be four different terms for grandparents in the proto-Pama-Nyungan language family, which was supported by the data. The results show no evidence of co-evolution between these grandparent systems with neither community marriage organization nor post-marital residence. There is not a significant correlation between grandparent and cross-cousin terms; however, there is some evidence that grand-child terms are correlated to grandparent systems.

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  2. Kin Against Kin: Internal Co-selection and the Coherence of Kinship TypologiesPassmore, Sam - Biological Theory, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to evaluate the degree to which classical kinship models are able to capture variation in kinship terminology. Following a description of the classical typologies of kinship, the authors use statistical approaches and a new database, Kinbank, to assess the internal coherence of these typologies; they find that these typologies are not necessarily accurate predictors of kinship terms across cultures. In addition, this analysis showed that the use of one sort of kinship typology for one generation may only weakly indicate its use in an adjacent generation. The authors set out to try and identify new typologies using statistical modeling based on the single-generation kinship terms of 306 languages. They successfully identify 9 clusters of kinship terms for just one generation alone, indicating that kinship terminology is much more diverse than previously thought. They conclude kinship typology and variation in kinship terminology needs to be investigated more thoroughly.

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  3. Social structureMurdock, George Peter - , 1949 - 41 Hypotheses

    This book is a comprehensive analysis of many aspects of social structure including family, clan, community, kinship terminology, social organization, regulation of sex, incest taboos, and sexual choice.

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  4. Human sound systems are shaped by post-Neolithic changes in bite configurationBlasi, D.E. - Science, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Using ethnography, historical linguistics, paleoanthropology, and speech biomechanics, the present study examines the relationship between labiodentals and the post-Neolithic period with the introduction of agriculture and softer diets. The results offer support for the linguist, Charles Hockett's, hypothesis that the shift in bite configuration in the post-Neolithic period, as well as the persistence of overbite and overjet, facilitates and makes the articulation of labiodentals more prevalent. Using cross-cultural comparison, findings also reveal that societies that produce their food are more likely to evolve and keep labiodentals than those that are not food-producing. Contact with other societies is also a mode by which societies gain labiodentals. Lastly, the expansion of agricultural and food processing technology over time has been imperative to labiodental articulations.

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  5. Cross-language parallels in parental kin termsMurdock, George Peter - Anthropological Linguistics, 1959 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the universal tendency for languages, regardless of their historical relationships, to develop similar words for mother and father on the basis of nursery forms. Findings suggest that Ma, Na, Pa, and Ta are significantly more common sound classes denoting the mother or father.

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  6. Bifurcate merging: a test of five theoriesMurdock, George Peter - American Anthropologist, n.s., 1947 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study examines previous hypotheses concerning kinship terminologies, particularly the development of bifurcate merging. The roles of moieties, exogamy, unilinear kin groupings, unilinear descent, and preferential mating are considered.

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  7. Cousin termsGoody, Jack - Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 1970 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article tests hypotheses related to kinship terms, cousin marriage, and descent rules. Omaha, Crow, Eskimo, and Iroquois systems are each significantly associated with different kinship rules. Material from Northern Ghana is also considered.

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  8. Social Practice and Shared History, Not Social Scale, Structure Cross-Cultural Complexity in Kinship SystemsRácz, Péter - Topics in Cognitive Science, 2019 - 6 Hypotheses

    Researchers examined kinships terminology systems for explanations regarding specifically observed typology of kin terms for cousins cross-culturally. They explore two theories, the first relating to population size via bottleneck evolution, and the second relating to social practices that shape kinship systems. Using the Ethnographic Atlas within D-PLACE, 936 societies with kinship system information were studied. The findings did not suggest a relationship between increased community size and a decrease in kinship complexity, however the research does suggest a relationship between practices of marriage and descent and kinship complexity.

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  9. Sonority and climate in a world sample of languages: findings and prospectsFought, John G. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2004 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between sonority and climate. Results suggest that languages spoken in warmer climates have higher levels of sonority than languages spoken in colder climates.

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  10. Levi-Strauss and empirical inquiryKobben, A. J. F. - Ethnology, 1974 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper tests some of Levi-Strauss's pronouncements on Crow-Omaha kinship systems cross-culturally. The author tests the relationships between Crow-Omaha and Hawaiian kinship systems and cross-cousin marriage. Results suggest that both kinship systems will prohibit cross-cousin marriage.

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